Introduction_to_the_Earth_F10_Lect1

Introduction_to_the_Earth_F10_Lect1 - Introduction to the...

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Introduction to the Earth Basic Terminology and Concepts Fall 2010, Lecture 1
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2 Ecosphere That part of the earth consisting of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere
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3 Atmosphere The gaseous layer which surrounds the earth, and which is held by gravitational attraction. It consists of layers, the bottom ones of which are: Thermosphere > 80 km Mesopause Mesosphere 45 - 80 km Stratopause Stratosphere 12 - 45 km Tropopause Troposphere 0 -12 km
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4 Hydrosphere Earth's water, in any physical state – Gaseous Liquid Solid
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5 Lithosphere The outermost part of the solid earth, consisting of the entire crust and the upper mantle, from the surface to a depth of about 70 kilometers (km) It is stronger and mechanically more rigid than the asthenosphere (70 - 250 km), which lies under it
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6 Interior of the Earth Crust – Continental (0-40 km, to a maximum of 100km) Oceanic (0-10 km) Mantle – Upper (bottom of crust to 700 km, and includes the transition zone (350 to 700 km) Lower (700 - 2900 km) Core – Outer (2900 - 4980 km - liquid iron-nickel) Inner (4980 - 6370 km - solid)
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7 Biosphere Interface layer between earth's crust, atmosphere, and hydrosphere where life is found Includes the total ecosystem of the earth
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8 Ecosystem Community of interacting organisms, of all species Includes interactions of this community with the chemical and physical systems of earth
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9 Human Activities Interact with the natural world, causing changes in the ecosystem Changes vary in magnitude and temporal scale
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10 Environmental Issues Changes in the ecosphere caused by: Natural processes Human activities Often cause change Affect the rate at which change occurs Or both
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Changes By Other Species Humans are not the only species to cause environmental change Cyanobacteria, the first organisms capable
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Introduction_to_the_Earth_F10_Lect1 - Introduction to the...

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