European Military test 1

European Military test 1 - European Military History First...

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European Military History First Exam Study Guide European Changes - Parker speaks of the popularity of war in the early European time period - There is a near disappearance of military experience in Europe today, the war fighting culture has disappeared which is a problem - War used to be the center of society , there was rarely peace Why War is so important - War was the unification of Nation states (war of the roses developed the Tudor dynasty, Hundred years war in Spain when Isabella and Ferdinand were kicked out) - In early modern European society war was the answer and only answer to all problems or conflicts - Parker speaks of “military revolution” Charles VIII (1470-1498) - His artillery could destroy anything within 3 days, he however was not a strong captain - Poor health and poor intelligence - Became King of France at 13 years old and lacks military experience - However his army and artillery were powerful and strong and great. - 2 dramatic changes : gun powder revolution and infantry resurgence (by the end of the 15 th century it went from armored knights to foot soldiers with gun powder weapons) - Charles invades Italy in 1494 o Valois Dynasty, crowed 1483 (inherited) o France was unified under Charles’ father after the 100 years war when England was kicked out o Charles has his own dreams of leading a crusade to the Holy Land (Ottoman Empire) against the Turks and be the leader of Christendom- to successfully carry this out he needs to make his claim to Naples (S. Italy has rich resources) so he can try and get control of the Middle East and launch the crusade o As he sets off to Naples he dies soon and his successors continue to wage war in Italy – continues 60 years. o He created the first effective mobile artillery and astounded people = “artillery train” (the Artillery Revolution) Gun powder - Originated in China - Introduced to Europe by the Mongols in the mid 13 th century - “Bombards” appear at the end of the 14 th century, very large and immobile - Iron (instead of stone) cannonballs: cheaper and easier to use - Gunpowder needed to be improved, an improper mixture could be dangerous and not useful, it took too long to load the bombards and guns making the firing rate very slow and they had to wait for the gun to cool before reloading - Better gunpowder was made, but it was too powerful and the chambers couldn’t handle the pressure
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o Need for improvements in Chamber: metal merging and casting - Arms Race - By the end of the 15 th century the French had made artillery developments (Flanders and Burgundy were pushing forward) - Cant move cannons around on the battle field, you hope you put it in the right place because once its there its staying put because they were so heavy - Europeans not satisfied with status quo of military technology/artillery – status quo challenged; European military culture of innovation. Response to Gun Powder and Military Revolution
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European Military test 1 - European Military History First...

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