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Unformatted text preview: Bulb / pit / S -turbines and generators Expertise in hydro with engineered reliability
The future belongs to hydropower. It conserves our fossil fuel reserves, is in abundant, self-renewing supply, is non-polluting and produces no waste streams. The world’s hydropower potential from rivers and reservoirs amounts to no less than 15 billion MWh per year – and only about 20 percent of this has been developed so far. Hydropower is not only environmentally friendly, but also cost-effective. Hydropower plants have the highest operating efficiency of all known generation systems. They are largely automated, and their operating costs are relatively low. Hydropower plants also play an important role in water resource management, in preventing flooding, making rivers navigable, solving irrigation problems and creating recreation areas. Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation is a leader today in hydropower equipment and services. As an experienced partner to powerplant operators, we provide fast, creative and cost-effective solutions. We offer everything from individual components to complete customized concepts, from turnkey delivery of new plants to the modernization of existing power stations, truly your best choice for one-stop shopping. Ybbs-Persenbeug power plant, Austria Competence and capabilities Consulting, engineering, erection and commissioning System/plant assessments Service, modernization and rehabilitation of existing hydropower plants Complete equipment, installation and services for hydropower plants Francis, Pelton, Kaplan, bulb turbines, pump-turbines, standard and custom Storage pumps, radial, semi-axial and axial-flow pumps Generators and motor-generators, excitation systems Frequency converters, protection systems, switchyards for all voltages, transformers Power plant automation, control centers for hydropower plants and cascades, including plant management and diagnostic systems Shut-off valves As your complete hydroelectric partner, Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation also covers your service needs. In keeping with our comprehensive hydropower expertise, we have a worldwide customer service network on which you can always depend for enhanced operating results. With our Integrated Services (IS) concept, we provide you with customized support right down the line – from project planning through implementation to plant commissioning and service. Why take chances? Profit from Engineered reliability. 2 3 Turbine characteristics The hydraulic development, design and manufacture of bulb and pit turbines has been significantly influenced by Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation for decades. Cross section of a bulb turbine and generator Application range
50 custom bulb turbine Kaplan S-turbine Characteristics 10 5 Head (m) While the bulb turbine represents the most commonly used solution for high outputs at low heads, the S-turbine is frequently favored for the economic utilization of small hydro applications with outputs up to about 10 MW. standard pit turbine 0 0 Output (MW) 0.1 1 custom pit turbine 10 100 Cross section of a pit turbine and generator Cross section of an S-turbine and generator The special application range of pit and S-turbine units, defined by head and output, also provides advantages. Their design is suitable for good accessibility of various components and assures reliability and long service life. 4 5 Advantages of bulb design The higher full-load efficiency and higher flow capacities of bulb and pit turbines can offer many advantages over vertical Kaplan turbines. In the overall assessment of the project, the application of bulb/pit turbines results in higher annual energy and lower relative construction costs. For heads lower than 10 m, pit-type turbines have been applied, with a speed increaser located between the runner and generator. Since 1955 over 180 machines have been put into operation all over the world with outputs from 50 kW to nearly 50,000 kW and diameters between 800 mm and 8400 mm. Models of 3-, 4-, 5-blade bulb turbine runners Oberaudorf-Ebbs, Germany, site erection Trend of runner diameter
9 Murray 8 7 6 Runner diameter [m] 5 Lehmen 4 3 2 1 0 1950 5 blades 4 blades 3 blades 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year of contract Finsingsee Müden New Martinsville St. Mary’s Greifenstein Ma Ji Tang Altenwörth Iffezheim
Freudenau Ybbs-Persenbeug Jing Nan Bailongtan Karkamis Chashma Murray, USA, runner during shop assembly New York State Dam, USA, 5-axis milling of a blade Rehlingen, Germany, runner during shop assembly 6 7 Generator characteristics of bulb Since the mid 1950s Voith Siemens Hydro has supplied bulb generators, with new designs approaching large outputs up to nearly 100 MVA. Trend of bulb generator output 50 Generator output (MVA) 40 Akao 30 Iffezheim Shingo 2 Bailongtan Chashma Yamazato 2 Canoas I Mino Kawai New Martinsville Sakuma 2 Lowell Main Canal Headworks 20 10 Detzem Sylvenstein 0 1950 Johganji-gawa 1960 Taguchi Koide Gandak Westem Yamna Chungju 2 Yuda Teesta Canal Eastern Gandak 2000 1970 Year 1980 1990 As bulb units grew in size, generator voltage grew from initially 3.3 and 6.6 kV to 11.0 kV on higher capacity units. Cooling systems evolved from originally separate heat exchangers to maintenance-free closed loop systems, providing heat dissipation directly into the river water passing the bulb unit. For very high capacities and high speed units pressurized air has been used to improve the heat dissipation. Lower Mettur, India, bulb nose and stator New Martinsville, USA, outer guide vane ring and stator Most bulb units are arranged with two bearings, a guide bearing near the overhung turbine runner, and a combined guide and thrust bearing supported by the stay column just downstream of the generator. The bearing systems of horizontal machines, whether for bulbs, pitturbines or S-type machines, have to be arranged to handle the counter thrust associated with load rejections of such units. Three-bearing systems are provided for certain high capacity machines, optimized for specific project requirements. The challenge in modern bulb unit designs is to achieve maximum reliability and availability, with minimum maintenance of the main units and associated auxiliaries. With its broad experience in hydrogenerators for the world’s largest hydroelectric facilities, and fifty years of experience in the design, manufacture and installation of bulb generators, Voith Siemens Hydro can provide fully optimized bulb, pit and S-type units for any installation. 8 9 3D section of a vertical bulb unit Main Canal, USA, stator shop assembly References and milestones New Martinsville, USA Chashma, Pakistan 1955 Sylvenstein, Germany: 1979 Sakuma 2, Japan: First bulb turbine of compact design.
1961 Fankel/Lehmen/Müden, Germany: 4 pit machines each with runner diameters between 4.6 m and 4.7 m for the Mosel river.
1973 Altenwörth, Austria: 50 Hz/60 Hz double frequency bulb turbine/generator units with 16.8 MW/ 17 MVA and 4.49 m runner diameter. Pressurized air cooling generators.
1982 Shingo 2, Japan: Most powerful bulb turbines at the time with 44 MW output, runner diameter 6 m.
1978 St. Mary’s, Ontario, Canada: Largest bulb turbine/generator unit in Japan at the time with 40.6 MW/ 40.9 MVA and 5 blades, 5 m runner diameter.
1983 Lowell, MA, USA: 18 MW bulb turbine with 3-blade runners and a diameter of 7.1 m.
1978 Ma Ji Tang, Hunan, China: Powerful S-tubular turbine/generator units with 8.7 MW/9.6 MVA. First modern bulb turbine units in China with 18 MW and runner diameter 6.3 m. West Enfield, USA St. Mary’s (Sault Ste. Marie), Canada Herbrechtingen-Rohr, Germany 1985 Murray Lock and Dam, AR, USA: 1994 Bailongtan, China: Largest pit turbine/generator units in the world, runner 8.4 m with 20.5 MW/ 22.8 MVA with two-stage epicyclic speed increases.
1986 New Martinsville, USA: Largest bulb power station in China at the time equipped with six bulb turbine/ generator units each 33 MW/33.7 MVA with runner diameter 6.4 m.
1995 Karkamis, Turkey: Powerful 3 blade, 7.3 m runner diameter bulb turbine/generator units with 20 MW/ 21.6 MVA.
1993 Ybbs-Persenbeug, Austria: Largest bulb power station in Turkey, with six 35.5 MW bulb turbines with 6.3 m diameter runners.
1999 Kaminojiri 2, Japan: Large bulb unit with 48 MW and runner of 7.5 m.
1994 Chashma, Pakistan: Largest vertical bulb turbine/generator in the world with 14 MW/14.3 MVA and runner diameter 3.9 m. Largest bulb power station in Pakistan equipped with eight bulb turbine/generator units with 23.7 MW/21.6 MVA and runner diameter 6.3 m. 10 11 Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation GmbH & Co. KG Alexanderstraße 11 89522 Heidenheim/Germany Tel. +49 7321 37 6848 Fax +49 7321 37 7828 [email protected] www.voithsiemens.com t 3181 e 03.04 3000 MSW Printed in Germany. Technical data and illustrations subject to change. ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2011 for the course FC gj, taught by Professor Glokgh during the Spring '97 term at Punjab Engineering College.
- Spring '97