The Global South, Dependency Theory, and Modernization Theory

The Global South, Dependency Theory, and Modernization Theory

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I. The Global South (the third world) a. North vs. South (vs. East): a. North = developed, not necessarily always in the geographic north. b. South = undeveloped/poorer, not always in the geographic south c. East = rapidly developing, generally in the east. b. Different types of countries that make up “the global south” a. NICs (newly industrialized countries) b. Oil-wealthy countries c. “One-crop” economy countries a. “typical” global south country b. Monoeconomies, not necessarily only agricultural. c. This is how the global south will be defined in this class for the most part. d. LDCs (least developed countries) c. How do countries end up as the global south, and how can they move to the global north? a. Modernization theory (believed by global north): a. Causes of poverty are internal. a. If internal poverty-causing factors are not eliminated, poverty cannot be eliminated. b. Internal factors: i. Low productivity and inefficiencies yield lower national income. 1. Workers in the global south can’t produce as much because they lack modern technology. i. Economies are reduced by 4 factors: 1. High population growth 1. Population growth hampers the ability to build enough infrastructure 2. Poorer governments incentivize larger families.
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i. If the government doesn’t help the elderly, people put the burden of their care on their (many) children. 3. As population grows exponentially and infrastructure grows in a linear manner, as population grows, economy shrinks. 2. Military expenditures 1. If you want to be economically developed and stable, then cut military spending. 2. Highest percentages of military expenditures often occur in global south countries. 3. Countries whose governments were established by a military coup will spend more on the military so the leaders can stay in power, and for fear of another coup. 4. Military products are typically “dead-end” expenditures in these countries; they don’t do anything for the people or the country. 3. Dualism: consumption patterns of elite 1. What do the well-off do in a poor country? 2. Elites live EXTREMELY extravagantly, while the bulk of the population lives in poverty. 4. Institutionalized corruption
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This note was uploaded on 05/07/2011 for the course POLS 231 taught by Professor Raymond during the Fall '10 term at Boise State.

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The Global South, Dependency Theory, and Modernization Theory

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