Genomes and Gene Technology

Genomes and Gene Technology - G enomes I Int ro and...

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Genomes: I. Intro and different fields a. Bioinformatics: the use of computers to deal with large data sets. i. Allows researchers to, for example, use protein and nucleotide sequence data to determine how closely related two species’ are. b. Functional genomics c. Comparative genomics i. Comparing species’ genomes ii. Human/Mouse comparison: 1. Thought to have diverged as a species 75 million years ago, however 99% of genes are shared. a. 1% of unique genes are composed largely in the areas of sensory perception (particularly smell) and reproduction. II. Genome evolution: a. Mechanisms of genome evolution (section 24.3 in book): i. Duplication of DNA segments 1. Duplicate strands can evolve in different directions ii. Pseudo genes: 1. Gene inactivation 2. E.g. humans have comparatively lost their sense of smell, and many pseudo genes exist in that region. iii. Lateral or horizontal gene transfer 1. Evidence of transfer of genes between species if the individuals are in close contact.
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2. E.g. bacteria can transfer antibiotic resistance among different species. 3. E.g. bean beetles may receive genes from endosymbiotic bacteria. 4. E.g. transfer of genes between host plants and parasite plants. 5. Etc. iv. Gene function (human speech)—evolution 1. FOXP2 gene codes for a transcription factor necessary for speech. a. Operates in the parts of the brain that affect precise motor activity. b. Fig. 24.12: i. Mice, Rhesus Monkeys, Orangutans, Gorillas, Chimps, and Humans all have the FOXP2 gene 1. Humans have 2 mutations in the gene which has allowed us to actually speak, unlike the other organisms. Gene Technology I. Basic techniques: a. Genetic engineering: the direct manipulation of genes. i. Involves the cutting of DNA into pieces and the rearrangement of said pieces. ii. Specific purposes to this rearrangement. iii. Tools of genetic engineering: 1. Restriction endonucleases (RE’s) a. Enzyme that cuts out a specific sequence of nucleotides in the middle of a DNA strand. b. Types of RE’s:
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i. Types I, II, and III ii. Type II is the most useful in technology c. 1 RE recognizes 1 DNA nucleotide sequence. i. Fig 17.1 d. Restriction sites (the nucleotide sequence on a DNA strand that the RE recognizes) are palindromes. i. Thus, when an RE cuts out a segment, it produces 2 “sticky ends” of the same nucleotides. These want to bond with other matching “sticky ends”, which may be produced by cutting other DNA segments.
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