STUDY GUIDE History - STUDY GUIDEFINAL Siddhartha Gautama...

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STUDY GUIDE—FINAL Siddhartha Gautama: moral religious thinker, mom had a dream before his birth about a white elephant entering her womb; priests came up with the conclusion that Siddhartha would become a universal thinker…predicted he would become an ascetic (person who renounces material comforts and leads a life of austere self discipline, especially as an act of religious devotion)…given a very materialistic life so he would not want to leave home, but snuck out at age 29… became curious about suffering Brahmin: a class of priests that are the religious tradition in India…believed that gods would reward their services with benefits, which include primarily materialistic things Great Renunciation: gave up all materialistic things including wife and son and became a wandering ascetic Enlightenment: a blessed state in which the individual surpasses desire and suffering and attains Nirvana Four Noble Truths: 1. Life is suffering 2. Suffering is caused by desire 3. The way to end suffering is to end desire 4. The way to end desire is to avoid 2 extremes; the extreme of a life of vulgar materialism and the extreme of a life of self-torture and self mortification Nirvana: the ultimate goal or condition, beyond existence and without form or definition. It is a blissful spiritual condition where the heart extinguishes passion, hatred, and delusion. Highest spiritual plane a person can attain. Theravada: school of Buddhism with traditional form. It is translated into the vehicle of the elders. Followers renounce the material world and enter into a monastery. (Theravada school spread throughout East Asia in places like Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos) Mahayana: other school of Buddhism that was translated into the greater vehicle. The universal opportunity of salvation was emphasized so that more people could be saved. (pushed religious devotion and spread in China, Korea, and Japan) PERSONAL DEVOTION Bodhisattva: a number of other deities, tried to help everyone else achieve their own salvation. Traveling merchants to spread the belief of Buddhism.
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Silk Roads: roads traveled in on in China by Bodhisattvas to spread belief of Buddhism. Known as the Silk Road because these merchants were trading silk. (during HAN dynasty) Dream of Emperor Ming: saw a golden deity in a dream and had his ministers explain who it was. They told him it was a sage, and Ming accepted. Between the time the emperor had this dream and the end of the century, Buddhism became well established. Northern Wei Dynasty: sponsored construction of caves with sculptures within them?? Caves: Kizil, Dunhuang, and yungang. -each represent a stage of Buddhism -fresco paintings covered the walls inside of the caves -yungang is known for having so many sculptures inside Liang Wudi : the ruler of the LIANG dynasty who converted to Buddhism. Banned wine and meat and also built Buddhist temples and monasteries.
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STUDY GUIDE History - STUDY GUIDEFINAL Siddhartha Gautama...

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