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ARISTOTELIAN METAPHYSICS METAPHYSICS piece, pp. 293-296 1. All men by nature desire to know. We are curious about our surroundings. 2. We know things (mostly) from experience. 3. We have access to the world via our senses. 4. Our senses give us information about the world, and for that reason, we cherish them…we all desire to know, we can only know anything from experience, we access the world through our senses (experience), so we must be using them for two reasons: a. As a means to an end…to learn something to achieve some other good OR b. Because knowing is an end in itself for human beings. We desire to know, so we try to know about things because we want to know…period! *FYI sight is our favorite sense because it gives us the most information about the world. We gaze, stare, search because it gives us the most information with the least effort and time. A note on memory: memory is produced from sensation. Some animals presumably do not remember (this is rarely accepted nowadays). BUT those who are able to remember are apt to learn from their sensations sensation memory experience art wisdom MAN: he is the rational animal. Reason is the only thing that sets him apart from animals. Animals live by appearances and some memories…but man can learn from them by processing them with his reason. THE SOUL: 3 Parts 3. rational 2. animalistic/desiderous 1. plantatative All plants have the first type. This is the part of a “soul” that nourishes, involuntarily manages the body…etc. All animals have both the first and second type. The second type has to do with instincts, impulses, some mild feelings (though not sentimental ones, but experiences of rudimentary “emotions”). Only man has all three. Reason and intellect are separate from the body, involuntary action, and instincts. There are three aspects to your soul. This account of the soul is very biological in that it accepts involuntary functioning, instinctual behavior, and rational behavior and freedom as all
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part of the same thing. This is why we experience conflict…we have competing divisions (or aspects) of our one self/soul. Since the rational part of the soul is our distinguishing mark, it is the major function of the human being. In other words, while we must surely breathe and eat and feel scared when danger approaches and good about eating food, etc., these are not the highest goods in our existence. To know and potentially know of everything (be wise) is the most
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This note was uploaded on 05/08/2011 for the course PHIL 101 taught by Professor Pleto during the Fall '08 term at Ohio University- Athens.

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