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phonetics-1 - CSD 250 CSD 250 Speech Science Speech Sound...

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Unformatted text preview: CSD 250 CSD 250 Speech Science Speech Sound Classification The Speech Chain The Speech Chain Outline Outline Phonetics: The study of speech sounds Components of speech production Speech sound classification Sounds of English Sounds of English What are they? Can they be divided into groups? Consonants & Vowels Consonants & Vowels Consonants: A narrow constriction is formed in the vocal tract Vowels: Vocal tract is relatively open Spelling vs. Sounds Spelling vs. Sounds Spelling does not always correspond to speech sounds Same sound, different spellings Same spelling, different sounds “c” in cat, cello, cereal “a” in happy, make, care, lava Vowel in hey, say, weigh, mate, gait, straight – – – The International Phonetic The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Phonetic symbols used to transcribe speech sounds Intended to be used for all languages Written in brackets [ ] Word Stress Word Stress Word stress are marked for words with two or more syllables ‘photograph ‘diplomat pho’tography di’plomacy photo’graphic diplo’matic Speech Production: Speech Production: Three Major Components Supralaryngeal Vocal Tract Supralaryngeal Vocal Tract Vocal Tract at Work Vocal Tract at Work Ken Stevens x­ray film Principal Parts of the Vocal Principal Parts of the Vocal Tract Consonant Classification Consonant Classification Place of Articulation: Where Manner of Articulation: How Voicing: Voiced/voiceless Places of Articulation Places of Articulation Manner of Articulation 1 Manner of Articulation 1 Stop Nasal Manner of articulation 2 Manner of articulation 2 Stop Fricative Manner of articulation 3 Manner of articulation 3 Liquids: [ l ], [ r ] Glides: [ j ], [ w ] Also called “Approximants” Voicing Voicing Voiced sounds: Vocal fold vibration Voiceless sounds: Vocal fold open Consonant Summary Consonant Summary Vowel Classification Vowel Classification – – – Based primarily on tongue body position: High – Low Front – Back Lips Rounded ­ Unrounded Tongue Body Positions for Tongue Body Positions for Vowels Vowel Summary Vowel Summary Phonemes & Allophones 1 Phonemes & Allophones 1 Consider [t] in tap, sit, & letter – 3 allophones: [t]released, [t]unreleased, [t]flapped – Only 1 phoneme /t/ (Note: in slash marks) because substituting one version of [t] for another does not change one word to another Phonemes & Allophones 2 Phonemes & Allophones 2 Consider [t] & [k] in tap & cap – 2 phonemes because substituting [t] for [k] changes one word to another – tap and cap are minimal pairs: They contrast by only 1 phoneme and they are different real words Phonemes & Allophones 3 Phonemes & Allophones 3 [rod] vs. [lod] in English [kuruma] vs. [kuluma] in Japanese – [r] & [l] are distinct phonemes, not allophones of the same phoneme (Why?) – [r] & [l] are not distinct phonemes in Japanese Clash vs. crash, play vs. pray may be hard to distinguish for Japanese speakers Why the Distinction? Why the Distinction? Phonemes Allophones – Presumably the kind of abstract representation we have in our mind/brain – Physical instantiation of a phoneme, subject to variation depending on the context Prosody Prosody The melody of speech Also called suprasegmental features of speech, as opposed to segmental features (consonants and vowels) Linguistic vs. emotional prosody Linguistic Prosody Linguistic Prosody Intonation Lexical Stress – Got the keys. vs. Got the keys? – ‘conduct vs. con’duct, ‘insight vs. in’cite – ‘hashi vs. ha’shi in Japanese – ma1 vs. ma2, ma3, ma4 in Mandarin Chinese Lexical Pitch Accent Lexical Tone ...
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