Chapter 2 Earth's Composition

Chapter 2 Earth's Composition - Mafic 50 of silicon(o...

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Minerals are compounds of elements (elements form molecules form compounds and the compounds are mineral) - Glass doesn’t have crystals it is amorphous - Volatiles: materials that transform into gas at the low temperatures found at Earth's surface (water)- play havoc with the earth (water in volcano- becomes more violent) - Important aspects and components of earth: Chapter 2: Earth's Composition Tuesday, February 01, 2011 10:26 AM Planet Earth Page 1
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p- waves travel faster in More dense material Layers Outer most layer (0-40 km) Continental crystal (35-40 km thick) (lighter than oceanic crust- made up of Rhyolite and Granite) Oceanic crust (710 km thick) (made up of Basalt and Gabbro) Low density stiff and brittle Crust (moves but is dense/ Strong) it breaks - Felsic: dominated in silicon
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Unformatted text preview: Mafic: 50% of silicon (o quartz or potassium feldsbar) Ultramfic: lack silicon About 2,900 km thick ○ Largest layer by volume ○ Peridotite rock ○ Upper and lower mantle ○ Lithosphere: rigid, brittle, non- flowable outer 100-150 km crust and top of mantle ○ Asthenosphere: soft, ductile, flowable; between 150- 350 km mantle ○ Occasionally deep sources volcanoes bring up pieces of the mantle called " Mantle Xenoliths" Mantle rocks are called Peridotites (August birthstone) Mantle ( very viscous (high viscosity means it resists flow) and mostly solid; upper mantle is less viscous)-Outer Core (2,900 to 5,155 km) mostly liquid iron Inner Core (5,150 t 6,370 km) Mainly solid iron Core-How do we know this? Planet Earth Page 2...
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Chapter 2 Earth's Composition - Mafic 50 of silicon(o...

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