Exam 2 Study Guide (2)

Exam 2 Study Guide (2) - C hapter 5: Patterns in Nature:...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 5: Patterns in Nature: Minerals - True scientific study of minerals didn’t begin until 1556 - Nicholas Steno, Georgius Agricola, etc. were the first mineralogists: people who specialize in the study of minerals - Minerologists used X- ray machines to aid in their study of minerals- used to obtain actual images of the internal structure of minerals, and electron microprobes to analyze the chemical composition of grains that are almost too small to see. - Industrial minerals serve as the raw materials for manufacturing chemicals, concrete and wallboard. - Ore minerals are the source of valuable minerals, gems, etc. - Mineralogy: the study of minerals o In geology, a mineral is a special kind of substance with certain distinctive characteristics - Mineral: a naturally occurring sold, formed by geologic processes, that has crystalline structure and a definable chemical composition, and in general is inorganic. o Naturally occurring- there are “synthetic minerals” but they are not technicalls Minerals o Solid- a slid state of matter that can maintain its shape indefinitely, and will not conform to the shape of its container o Formed b geologic process- can or by freezing of molten rock, precipitation out of a water solution, or by chemical reaction within or on the surface of preexisting rocks. There are also mineras produced by organisms- biogenic minerals - such as the calcite in a clam shell o Definable chemical composition- you can write a chemical formula for a mineral
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Diamond and graphite – C (both consist of entirely Carbon) Quartz SiO 2 o Orderly arrangement of atoms- the atoms that make up a mineral are not distributed random and cannot move around easily- they are fixed in a specific pattern . Crystalline solid: a material in which atoms are fixed in an orderly pattern. Crystal lattice: the imaginary framework representing the arrangement of atoms o Inorganic, in general- however 30 or so organic substances are classified as minerals - Glass is not a mineral - Crystal: single continuous (uninterrupted) piece of crystalline solid bounded by flat surfaces called crystal faces that grew naturally as the mineral formed - Crystal structure: the way in which atoms are packed - Chemists recognize five different types of bonds (covalent [atoms stick to eachother by sharing electrons], ionic [atoms either dd electrons to become negative ions or lose electrons to become positive], metallic, cn der Waals’, and hydrogen) - Polymorphs: two different minerals (such as diamond and graphite) that have the same composition but different crystal structures - Symmetry: the pattern of atoms or ions in a mineral displays this- meaning that the shape of one part of a mineral is a mirror image of the shape of another part. -
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This document was uploaded on 05/05/2011.

Page1 / 11

Exam 2 Study Guide (2) - C hapter 5: Patterns in Nature:...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online