Exam 2 Study Guide

Exam 2 Study Guide - TextbookEarth Portrait of a P lanet(by...

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Textbook—“Earth: Portrait of a Planet” (by Stephen Marshak) REVIEW SHEET FOR TEST #2 Number items refer to vocabulary words. Some of these vocabulary words are at the end of each chapter of the textbook, some of them are listed in the back of the book, and still other we discussed in class and should be in the notes. Bullet items refer to figures and/or important concepts from the chapters. Chapter 5: minerals 1. Color: results from the way minerals interacts with light. Sunlight contains the whole spectrum of colors- each color has a different wavelength 2. Crystal: single continuous (uninterrupted) piece of crystalline solid bounded by flat surfaces called crystal faces that grew naturally as the mineral formed 3. Crystal lattice: the imaginary framework representing the arrangement of atoms 4. Hardness: measure of the relative ability of a mineral to resist scratching and therefore represents the resistance of bonds in the crystal structure to being broken; hard minerals can scratch soft minerals- diamond is the hardest mineral 5. Mineral: are homogeneous, naturally occurring, solid substances with a defiable chemical composition and an internal structure characterized by an orderly arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules in a lattice. Most minerals are inorganic 6. Mineralogists: who specialize in the study of minerals 7. Mineralogy: : the study of minerals; In geology, a mineral is a special kind of substance with certain distinctive characteristics 8. Mohs hardness scale: mineral of hardness 5 can scratch all minerals; helps in mineral identification 9. Physical properties: visual and material characteristics; recognizing these will let you tell the difference between all the different minerals; color, streak, luster, hardness, specific gravity, crystal habit, fracture and cleavage, special properties 10. Polymorphs: two different minerals (such as diamond and graphite) that have the same composition but different crystal structures 11. Silicate minerals: : compose over 95% of the continental crust Independent tetrahdra- tetrahedral are independent and do not share any oxygen atoms- held together by the attraction between the tetrahedral and positive ions Single chains- ni a single- chain silicate, the tetrahedral link to form a chain by sharing two oxygen atoms each Double chains- the tetrahedral link to form a double chain by sharing 2 r 3 oxygen atoms. Amphiboles are the most common type Sheet silicates- tetrahedral all share three oxygen atoms and therefore lin to form two dimensional sheets
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Framework silicates- each tetrahedron chares all four oxygen atoms with its neighbors, forming a 3-D structure- feldspar and quartz 12. Silicon oxygen tetrahedron: a silicon atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms, is the fundamental building block of silicate minerals • Box 5.1 o Element: a pure substance that cannot be separated into other elements o Atom: the smallest piece of an element that retains the characteristics of the element.
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