exam 2 - Planet Earth Prof Lepre Sunday, March 20, 2011...

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Textbook —“ Earth:Portraitof a Planet” (by Stephen Marshak) REVIEWSHEET FOR TEST #2 Numberitems refertovocabulary words. Some of these vocabulary words are at the endof each chapterof the textbook, some of themare listedinthe backof the book, andstill otherwe discussedinclassandshouldbeinthe notes. Bulletitems refertofigures and/orimportantconceptsfromthe chapters. Chapter 5: minerals 1. Color: results from the way minerals interacts with light. Sunlight contains the whole spectrum of colors- each color has a different wavelength 2. Crystal: single continuous (uninterrupted) piece of crystalline solid bounded by flat surfaces called crystal faces that grew naturally as the mineral formed 3. Crystal lattice: the imaginary framework representing the arrangement of atoms 4. Hardness: measure of the relative ability of a mineral to resist scratching and therefore represents the resistance of bonds in the crystal structure to being broken; hard minerals can scratch soft minerals- diamond is the hardest mineral 5. Mineral: are homogeneous, naturally occurring, solid substances with a defiable chemical composition and an internal structure characterized by an orderly arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules in a lattice. Most minerals are inorganic 6. Mineralogists: who specialize in the study of minerals 7. Mineralogy: : the study of minerals; In geology, a mineral is a special kind of substance with certain distinctive characteristics 8. Mohs hardness scale: mineral of hardness 5 can scratch all minerals; helps in mineral identification 9. Physical properties: visual and material characteristics; recognizing these will let you tell the difference between all the different minerals; color, streak, luster, hardness, specific gravity, crystal habit, fracture and cleavage, special properties 10. Polymorphs: two different minerals (such as diamond and graphite) that have the same composition but different crystal structures Independent tetrahdra- tetrahedral are independent and do not share any oxygen atoms- held together by the attraction between the tetrahedral and positive ions o Single chains- ni a single- chain silicate, the tetrahedral link to form a chain by sharing two oxygen atoms each o Double chains- the tetrahedral link to form a double chain by sharing 2 r 3 oxygen atoms. Amphiboles are the most common type o Sheet silicates- tetrahedral all share three oxygen atoms and therefore lin to form two dimensional sheets o Framework silicates- each tetrahedron chares all four oxygen atoms with its neighbors, forming a 3-D structure- feldspar and quartz o 11. Silicate minerals: : compose over 95% of the continental crust 12. Silicon oxygentetrahedron: a silicon atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms, is the fundamental building block of silicate minerals Box 5.1 o Element: a pure substance that cannot be separated into other elements o Atom: the smallest piece of an element that retains the characteristics of the element. An atom
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exam 2 - Planet Earth Prof Lepre Sunday, March 20, 2011...

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