General Psychology notes

General Psychology notes - General Psychology September 8...

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General Psychology September 8, 2010 The Young Science The study of behavior and experience 3 broad categories of psychology 1) Helping the individual: Clinical psychologists- have a degree in clinical psychology and help people with problems (depression, marital issues) Psychiatrists: have an MD and then have 4 years of training in psychiatry. Able to prescribe drugs Psychoanalysts: provide therapy, based on theories of Freud and others Clinical social worker: having a Master’s in Social Work Counseling psychologists: help with educational, vocational, marriage, and health- related decisions. Generally work in institutions—but for individuals in the institution Forensic psychologists: provide advice to police, lawyers and courts 2) Helping the Organization Industrial/ organizational psychology: the study of people at work (often to maximize the productivity of individuals in the company Human factors psychology: aimed to facilitate the operation of machinery (increasingly important in a more technological world) 3) Research in Psychology Developmental psychology: study of how behavior changes with age (from womb to tomb) Learning and Motivation: how behavior depends on the outcomes of past behaviors and current motivations (doesn’t like limes because of too much tequila)
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Cognitive psychology: the study of thought processes and the acquisition of knowledge (pretend candy is made of plastic) Biological psychology: the study of behavior as caused by biological factors (eats strong tasting foods now because he lost some taste buds) Evolutionary psychology: the study of behavior in terms of the evolutionary history of the species (she likes sweet because it gave people energy to run) Social psychology: the study of how the individual affects the group and vice versa (acting based on setting) Cross- cultural psychology: compares the behavior of people from different cultures (she eats with her hands because she is Indian) Psychologists date the beginning of psychology to 1879 - Wilhelm Wundt (father of experimental psychology) establishes a lab in the University of Leipzig, Germany - Wrote and researched tirelessly on the human experience - Edward Titchener, a student of Wundt) formalized structuralism (a perspective that attempted to describe the structures of the mind Everything is a bunch of stuff put together - Critics of structuralism stated that it had no real systematic way of researching - Structuralism relies heavily on introspection (what do you experience now) - Functionalism: studied how mental processes produced useful behaviors (William James) [studied the senses, how do we experience light?] - Psychology came from psychology Psychology’s sibling is sociology Psychology wants to be a science Functionalism and Sensation
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- Research into sensation offered a way to be “science-y” and still study human behavior and experience - Comparative psychologists were keenly interested in comparing different animal species Intelligent animals
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