Module 6 and 7 notes

Module 6 and 7 notes - Module 6 Neuron: a nerve cell; the...

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Module 6 Neuron: a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system Dendrite: the branching extensions of a neuron that receive information and conduct impulses toward the cell body (soma). Soma: the cell body of a neuron through which contains the nucleus and other parts that keep the cell healthy Axon: the extension of a neuron through which neural impulses are sent. Axon terminal: the endpoint of a neuron where neurotransmitters are stored Action potential: a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron Refractory period: the “recharging phase” during which a neuron, after firing, cannot generate another action potential Resting potential: the state of a neuron when it is at rest and capable of generating an action potential All-or-nothing principle: the principal stating that if a neuron fires it always fires at the same intensity; all action potentials have the same strength Synapse: the tiny, fluid-filled gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of another Neurotransmitter: a chemical messenger that travels across the synapse from one neuron to the next and influences whether a neuron will generate an action potential Excitatory effect: a neurotransmitter effect that makes it more likely that the receiving neuron will generate an action potential of “fire.” Inhibitory effect: a neurotransmitter effect that makes it less likely that a receiving neuron will generate an action potential or “fire”
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Module 6 and 7 notes - Module 6 Neuron: a nerve cell; the...

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