Pyruvate Metabolism Study Questions

Pyruvate Metabolism Study Questions - their roles in the...

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Pyruvate Metabolism 1. During extreme exercise or in organisms that grow anaerobically, pyruvate yields much less energy compared to respiration. What are the two pathways of fermentation? Why are these pathways necessary during extreme exercise and anaerobic growth? Draw the net reaction for the metabolism of glucose by either pathway. 2. After a heavy night of drinking, person A has a horrible hangover. Show the product that accumulates in person A and draw the enzyme reaction that catalyzes it. 3. If fermentation did not occur during anaerobic metabolism, glycolysis would come to a screeching halt. Why? 4. What is the net reaction catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex? In what place in the cell does this take place? Why is metabolism of pyruvate by this enzyme preferred over fermentation? 5. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex interacts with five co-factors. What are they? Which enzyme components do they interact with? Which are tightly bound and which bind reversibly? What are
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Unformatted text preview: their roles in the mechanism of the enzyme? 6. The PDH reaction is initiated by the cofactor thiamin pyrophosphate. Draw the structure of this cofactor. Show the C-H bond that has an unusually low pKa. Why is this feature of the cofactor essential for the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme complex? 7. Draw the structure of oxidized, reduced, and acetylated forms of lipoate. What property of lipoate allows it to interact with both the E1 and E3 complexes. 8. Show the structural difference of FAD in the oxidized and reduced state. Why is FAD necessary for the PDH reaction? 9. How is the PDH reaction regulated? What are the key effectors involved? 10. Energy charge can affect whether pyruvate is converted to oxaloacetate. Review your notes and the enzymes that are involved in these reactions of pyruvate and suggest how energy regulates these enzymes. Why does this make sense with respect to the energy needs of the cell?...
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