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old ID - 1 Aeneas In the early Roman empire works like...

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1. Aeneas: In the early Roman empire, works like Virgil’s Aeneid depict the hero, Aeneas, who deliberately embodies the Roman ideals of loyalty to the state, devotion to family, and reverence for the gods. Virgil believed that these virtues would help secure Rome's place in history. Virgil praises order over chaos and emphasizes the fate of Rome to impose peace and morality, often seen as a nod to the peace established under Augustus’ imperial rule. 5. Senate: The Roman senate was one of the most enduring political institutions in ancient Rome. During the days of the kingdom it served as an advisory council to the king. The senate’s named derived from senex (old man), and it acted as an assembly of 100 elders under Romulus, forming the patrician class. The senate also functioned as a legislative body representing the people of Rome and approved the election of new kings. During the early Republic, the senate was politically weak and executive magistrates were very powerful. They served to advise magistrates, particularly consuls, through it’s decrees which were generally obeyed despite not holding any legal power. With the gradual transition to constitutional rule, the senate was eventually able to assert itself over the executive magistrates. The middle Republic marked the height of the senate’s power. The senate was involved with management of the provinces and controlled the states finances, which gave it great influence. Following the reforms of the Gracchi tribunes, the late Republic saw a decline in the senate’s power. During the Roman empire, the senate lost much of its political power and prestige. Most of its power was shifted to the Emperor as the Emperor controlled the senate, using it as a vehicle through which he exercised his autocratic powers. Its size was also reduced in this period. 6. Cultus: In the Roman Republic, cultus was an important part of the Roman state religion. In accordance with the custom of the ancestors, Roman tradition, Romans followed a strict set of guidelines, or cultus, that dictated the proper way to perform rituals and offer divine honors. Strict adherence to these rules were deemed essential to showing pietas to the gods and maintaining good relations with the gods, who would provide Romans
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with benefits and overall prosperity in return.
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