ap09_chemistry_form_b_sgs - AP® Chemistry 2009 Scoring...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Chemistry 2009 Scoring Guidelines Form B The College Board The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,600 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools and 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in college readiness, college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT® and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities and concerns. © 2009 The College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central® is the official online home for AP teachers: apcentral.collegeboard.com. AP® CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 (10 points) A pure 14.85 g sample of the weak base ethylamine, C2H5NH2 , is dissolved in enough distilled water to make 500. mL of solution. (a) Calculate the molar concentration of the C2H5NH2 in the solution. nC2H5NH2 = 14.85 g C2H5NH2 ¥ = 0.3293 mol C2H5NH2 1 mol C2 H 5 NH 2 45.09 g C2 H 5 NH 2 One point is earned for the correct number of moles. One point is earned for the correct concentration. MC2H5NH2 = 0.3293 mol C2 H 5 NH 2 = 0.659 M 0.500 L The aqueous ethylamine reacts with water according to the equation below. → C2H5NH2(aq) + H2O(l) ← C2H5NH3+(aq) + OH−(aq) (b) Write the equilibrium-constant expression for the reaction between C2H5NH2(aq) and water. Kb = [C2 H 5 NH3+ ][OH - ] [C2 H 5 NH 2 ] One point is earned for the correct expression. (c) Of C2H5NH2(aq) and C2H5NH3+(aq), which is present in the solution at the higher concentration at equilibrium? Justify your answer. C2H5NH2 is present in the solution at the higher concentration at equilibrium. Ethylamine is a weak base, and thus it has a small Kb value. Therefore only partial dissociation of C2H5NH2 occurs in water, and [C2H5NH3+] is thus less than [C2H5NH2]. One point is earned for the correct answer with justification. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 (continued) (d) A different solution is made by mixing 500. mL of 0.500 M C2H5NH2 with 500. mL of 0.200 M HCl. Assume that volumes are additive. The pH of the resulting solution is found to be 10.93. (i) Calculate the concentration of OH−(aq) in the solution. pH = − log[H+] [H+] = 10−10.93 = 1.17 × 10−11 [OH−] = OR pOH = 14 − pH = 14 − 10.93 = 3.07 pOH = − log[OH −] [OH−] = 10−3.07 = 8.5 × 10−4 M [H + ] Kw = 1.00 ¥ 10 -14 = 8.5 × 10−4 M -11 1.17 ¥ 10 One point is earned for the correct concentration. (ii) Write the net-ionic equation that represents the reaction that occurs when the C2H5NH2 solution is mixed with the HCl solution. C2H5NH2 + H3O+ → C2H5NH3+ + H2O One point is earned for the correct equation. (iii) Calculate the molar concentration of the C2H5NH3+(aq) that is formed in the reaction. moles of C2H5NH2 = 0.500 L × moles of H3O+ = 0.500 L × 0.500 mol = 0.250 mol 1.00 L 0.200 mol = 0.100 mol 1.00 L [H3O+] 0.100 − 0.100 ~0 [C2H5NH3+] ~0 +0.100 0.100 One point is earned for the correct number of moles of C2H5NH2 and H3O+. initial value change final value + [C2H5NH2] 0.250 − 0.100 0.150 0.100 mol C2 H 5 NH3 + = 0.100 M [C2H5NH3 ] = 1.00 L One point is earned for the correct concentration. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 1 (continued) (iv) Calculate the value of Kb for C2H5NH2 . 0.150 mol C2 H 5 NH 2 [C2H5NH2] = = 0.150 M 1.00 L One point is earned for the correct calculation of the molarity of C2H5NH2 after neutralization. [C2 H 5 NH3+ ][OH - ] (0.100)(8.5 ¥ 10 -4 ) Kb = = = 5.67 × 10−4 0.150 [C2 H 5 NH 2 ] One point is earned for the correct value. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 (8 points) S2O32–(aq) æH æ SO32– (aq) + S(s) æÆ + A student performed an experiment to investigate the decomposition of sodium thiosulfate, Na2S2O3 , in acidic solution, as represented by the equation above. In each trial the student mixed a different concentration of sodium thiosulfate with hydrochloric acid at constant temperature and determined the rate of disappearance of S2O32−(aq). Data from five trials are given below in the table on the left and are plotted in the graph on the right. (a) Identify the independent variable in the experiment. The initial concentration of S2O32−(aq) One point is earned for the correct answer. (b) Determine the order of the reaction with respect to S2O32−. Justify your answer by using the information above. Using trials 1 and 2: k2 [S2 O32 - ]m2 rate 2 = rate1 k1[S2 O32 - ]m1 0.030 M s -1 0.020 M s -1 One point is earned for the correct order. = [0.075]m [0.050]m One point is earned for a correct justification. 1.5 = (1.5)m, so m = 1 and the reaction is first order with respect to S2O32−. Note: Other correct justifications are acceptable. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 (continued) (c) Determine the value of the rate constant, k , for the reaction. Include units in your answer. Show how you arrived at your answer. rate = k [S2O32−] ⇒ k= rate [S2 O32 - ] 0.020 M s -1 = 0.40 s−1 0.050 M One point is earned for the correct value. Using the data from trial 1, k = OR the rate constant is equal to the slope of the line k= One point is earned for the correct units. (0.052 - 0.020) M s -1 0.032 M s -1 = 0.40 s−1 = (0.13 - 0.05) M 0.08 M (d) In another trial the student mixed 0.10 M Na2S2O3 with hydrochloric acid. Calculate the amount of time it would take for the concentration of S2O32− to drop to 0.020 M . ln[A] t − ln[A]0 = − kt ⇒ ln [A]t = − kt [A]0 ln [S2 O32 - ]0 [S2 O3 ]t 2- = − kt ⇒ One point is earned for the correct setup. ln 0.020 = (−0.40 s−1)( t ) 0.10 t= -1.61 = 4.0 s -0.40 s -1 One point is earned for the correct answer with units. (e) On the graph above, sketch the line that shows the results that would be expected if the student repeated the five trials at a temperature lower than that during the first set of trials. The line drawn should start on the y-axis at a lower point than the line already plotted and should have a less steep slope. One point is earned for an acceptable line. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 (10 points) 2 H2O2(aq) → 2 H2O(l) + O2(g) The mass of an aqueous solution of H2O2 is 6.951 g. The H2O2 in the solution decomposes completely according to the reaction represented above. The O2(g) produced is collected in an inverted graduated tube over water at 23.4°C and has a volume of 182.4 mL when the water levels inside and outside of the tube are the same. The atmospheric pressure in the lab is 762.6 torr, and the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at 23.4°C is 21.6 torr. (a) Calculate the partial pressure, in torr, of O2(g) in the gas-collection tube. Patm = PO2 + PH2O ⇒ PO2 = Patm − PH2O PO2 = 762.6 torr − 21.6 torr = 741.0 torr One point is earned for the correct answer. (b) Calculate the number of moles of O2(g) produced in the reaction. PV = nRT ⇒ n= PV RT One point is earned for the correct substitutions. P = 741.0 torr × 1 atm = 0.9750 atm 760 torr T = 273.15 + 23.4°C = 296.6 K V = 182.4 mL × 1L = 0.1824 L 1,000 mL One point is earned for the correct answer. nO2 = (0.9750 atm)(0.1824 L) PV = = 7.304 × 10–3 mol RT (0.0821 L atm mol -1 K -1 )(296.6 K) (c) Calculate the mass, in grams, of H2O2 that decomposed. One point is earned for the conversion of mol O2 to mol H2O2. One point is earned for the correct mass. (7.304 × 10–3 mol O2) × 2 mol H 2 O2 34.0 g H 2 O2 × = 0.497 g H2O2 1 mol O2 1 mol H 2 O2 (d) Calculate the percent of H2O2 , by mass, in the original 6.951 g aqueous sample. 0.497 g H 2 O2 × 100 = 7.15% 6.951 g sample One point is earned for the correct answer. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 3 (continued) (e) Write the oxidation number of the oxygen atoms in H2O2 and the oxidation number of the oxygen atoms in O2 in the appropriate cells in the table below. Substance H2O2 O2 Oxidation Number of Oxygen Atoms In H2O2 , the oxidation number of O is −1. In O2 , the oxidation number of O is 0. Two points are earned for the correct oxidation numbers (1 point each). (f) Write the balanced oxidation half-reaction for the reaction. H2O2(aq) → O2(g) + 2 H+(aq) + 2 e− One point is earned for the correct reactant and products. One point is earned for correct balancing. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 4 (15 points) (a) A barium nitrate solution and a potassium fluoride solution are combined and a precipitate forms. (i) Balanced equation: Ba2+ + 2 F − → BaF2 Two points are earned for the correct reactants (1 point each). One point is earned for the correct product. One point is earned for correctly balancing the equation for atoms and charge. (ii) If equimolar amounts of barium nitrate and potassium fluoride are combined, which reactant, if any, is the limiting reactant? Explain. According to the balanced chemical equation, twice as much potassium fluoride is required to completely react with the barium nitrate. Because there are equimolar amounts of barium nitrate and potassium fluoride, there is not enough potassium fluoride to react with all of the barium nitrate, so potassium fluoride is the limiting reactant. One point is earned for a correct answer that is consistent with part (i). (b) A piece of cadmium metal is oxidized by adding it to a solution of copper(II) chloride. (i) Balanced equation: Cd + Cu2+ → Cd2+ + Cu One point is earned for both correct reactants. One point is earned for both correct products. One point is earned for correctly balancing the equation for atoms and charge. (ii) List two visible changes that would occur in the reaction container as the reaction is proceeding. In the solution, the blue color of the copper(II) cation would decrease, and eventually the solution would become colorless. Reddish-brown (or black) copper metal would plate out onto the piece of silvery cadmium metal. Two points are earned for correctly describing the changes (1 point each). © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 4 (continued) (c) A hydrolysis reaction occurs when solid sodium sulfide is added to distilled water. (i) Balanced equation: Na2S + H2O → 2 Na+ + HS− + OH− OR Na2S + 2 H2O → 2 Na+ + H2S + 2 OH− One point is earned for both correct reactants. One point is earned for any two correct products; 2 points are earned for all three correct products. One point is earned for correctly balancing the equation for atoms and charge. (ii) Indicate whether the pH of the resulting solution is less than 7, equal to 7, or greater than 7. Explain. The pH of the resulting solution is greater than 7. The hydrolysis reaction of S2− produces the base OH −, thus raising the pH above 7. One point is earned for a correct answer that is consistent with part (i). © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 5 (9 points) Answer the following questions about nitrogen, hydrogen, and ammonia. (a) In the boxes below, draw the complete Lewis electron-dot diagrams for N2 and NH3. The correct structures are shown in the boxes above. Two points are earned for the correct Lewis electron-dot diagrams (1 point each). (b) Calculate the standard free-energy change, ΔG °, that occurs when 12.0 g of H2(g) reacts with excess N2(g) at 298 K according to the reaction represented below. → N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ← 2 NH3(g) ΔG298 = −34 kJ mol−1 One point is earned for the correct stoichiometry. One point is earned for the correct answer. 12.0 g H2 × 1 mol H 2 1 mol reaction -34 kJ × × = – 68 kJ 3 mol H 2 1 mol reaction 2.0 g H 2 (c) Given that ΔH 298 for the reaction is −92.2 kJ mol−1, which is larger, the total bond dissociation energy of the reactants or the total bond dissociation energy of the products? Explain. ΔH 298 = Σ (bond energy of the reactants) − Σ (bond energy of the products) Based on the equation above, for ΔH 298 to be negative, the total bond energy of the products must be larger than the total bond energy of the reactants. OR More energy is released as product bonds are formed than is absorbed as reactant bonds are broken. One point is earned for the correct answer with the correct equation and explanation. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 5 (continued) (d) The value of the standard entropy change, ΔS298 , for the reaction is −199 J mol−1K−1. Explain why the value of ΔS298 is negative. All of the reactants and products in the reaction are in the gas phase, so the sign of the entropy change will depend on the number of moles of particles in the reactants and products. There are more moles of reactants (four) compared with moles of products (two), so there is a greater number of microstates in the reactants than in the products. Therefore the entropy decreases as the reaction proceeds (fewer possible microstates), and the sign of the entropy change is negative. One point is earned for the correct explanation. (e) Assume that ΔH ° and ΔS ° for the reaction are independent of temperature. (i) Explain why there is a temperature above 298 K at which the algebraic sign of the value of ΔG ° changes. ΔG ° = ΔH ° − TΔS ° As the temperature increases |TΔS°| will at some point exceed |∆H°|. Because both ΔH ° and ΔS ° are negative, the sign of ΔG ° will then change from negative to positive. One point is earned for the correct explanation. (ii) Theoretically, the best yields of ammonia should be achieved at low temperatures and high pressures. Explain. Low temperatures: The reaction is exothermic. By Le Chatelier’s principle, decreasing the temperature drives the reaction to the right to produce more heat energy, and thus more ammonia is produced. High pressures: For this reaction, higher pressure is achieved by decreasing the volume of the container. As pressure increases, the reaction equilibrium shifts in the direction that reduces the total number of particles (by Le Chatelier’s principle). In this case, the product has fewer moles of particles than the reactants; thus product would be favored. Higher pressure therefore results in an increase in the amount of ammonia. One point is earned for explaining increased yield at low temperatures. One point is earned for explaining increased yield at high pressures. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 6 (9 points) Answer the following questions about electrochemical cells. It is observed that when silver metal is placed in aqueous thallium(I) fluoride, TlF, no reaction occurs. When the switch is closed in the cell represented above, the voltage reading is + 1.14 V. (a) Write the reduction half-reaction that occurs in the cell. Ag+ + e− → Ag One point is earned for the correct equation. (b) Write the equation for the overall reaction that occurs in the cell. Tl + Ag+ → Tl+ + Ag One point is earned for the correct equation. (c) Identify the anode in the cell. Justify your answer. The anode is where oxidation occurs. In the overall reaction Tl is oxidized to Tl+, so the anode is the Tl electrode in the left cell. One point is earned for the correct answer with justification. (d) On the diagram above, use an arrow to clearly indicate the direction of electron flow as the cell operates. The arrow should show electron flow in the direction from the Tl electrode through the wire to the Ag electrode. One point is earned for a correct arrow. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® CHEMISTRY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 6 (continued) (e) Calculate the value of the standard reduction potential for the Tl+/Tl half-reaction. Ecell = Ered − Eox +1.14 V = +0.80V − Eox Eox = −0.34 V One point is earned for the correct setup. One point is earned for the correct answer. The standard reduction potential, E° , of the reaction Pt2+ + 2 e− → Pt is 1.20 V. (f) Assume that electrodes of pure Pt, Ag, and Ni are available as well as 1.00 M solutions of their salts. Three different electrochemical cells can be constructed using these materials. Identify the two metals that when used to make an electrochemical cell would produce the cell with the largest voltage. Explain how you arrived at your answer. E°(V) Ni2+ + 2 e− → Ni Ag+ + e− −0.25 0.80 1.20 One point is earned for the correct answer with justification. → Ag Pt Pt2+ + 2 e− → Ecell = Ered − Eox The two metals that yield the largest Ecell are those with the biggest difference in E°, namely, Pt and Ni (see Ecell calculation below). Ecell = +1.20 − (−0.25) = +1.45 V (g) Predict whether Pt metal will react when it is placed in 1.00 M AgNO3(aq). Justify your answer. When Pt metal is added to 1.00 M AgNO3 , the only redox reaction that could occur would be for Pt to become oxidized as Ag+ is reduced. One point is earned for comparing E° values. One point is earned for the correct interpretation. Ecell = Ered − Eox = +0.80 V − (+1.20 V) = −0.40 V Because Ecell for that reaction is negative, no reaction will occur. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2011 for the course CHEM 504 taught by Professor John during the Fall '11 term at American College of Computer & Information Sciences.

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