ap09_frq_chemistry - AP® Chemistry 2009 Free-Response...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Chemistry 2009 Free-Response Questions The College Board The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,600 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools and 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in college readiness, college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT® and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities and concerns. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. INFORMATION IN THE TABLE BELOW AND IN THE TABLES ON PAGES 3-5 MAY BE USEFUL IN ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION OF THE EXAMINATION. -2- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. STANDARD REDUCTION POTENTIALS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AT 25∞C Half-reaction F2 ( g) + 2 e Co 3+ 3+ E ∞(V) 2F Co 2+ - Æ Æ +e - Au + 3e - Æ - Au(s) 2 Cl 2 H 2 O(l ) 2 Br Hg22+ Hg(l ) Ag(s) 2 Hg(l ) Fe 2+ 2 ICu(s) Cu(s) Cu+ Sn 2+ H 2S(g ) H2 (g) Pb(s) Sn(s) Ni(s) Co(s) Cd(s) Cr 2+ Fe(s) Cr(s) Zn(s) H 2 ( g ) + 2 OH Mn(s) Al(s) Be(s) Mg(s) Na(s) Ca(s) Sr(s) Cl2 (g ) + 2 e Br2 (l ) + 2 e Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ - O2 (g) + 4 H + + 4 e - 2 Hg2+ + 2 e Hg2+ + 2 e Ag + e + - Hg2 Fe 2+ + 2e - 3+ +e Cu+ + e Cu Cu 2+ 2+ I 2 (s) + 2 e + 2e +e - Sn 4+ + 2 e S(s) + 2 H + + 2 e 2H + 2e + - Pb Sn Ni 2+ 2+ + 2e + 2e + 2e 2+ 2+ 2+ - Co Cd Cr Cr + 2e + 2e +e - 3+ Fe 2+ + 2 e 3+ 2+ + 3e - Zn + 2e 2 H 2 O(l ) + 2 e Mn 2+ + 2 e Al 3+ 2+ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ + 3e - Be + 2e - Mg Ca Sr Ba 2+ + 2e Na + e + 2+ 2+ + 2e + 2e - - - 2+ + + 2e - Ba(s) Rb(s) K ( s) Cs(s) Li(s) Rb + e K +e + + Cs + e Li + e + - 2.87 1.82 1.50 1.36 1.23 1.07 0.92 0.85 0.80 0.79 0.77 0.53 0.52 0.34 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.00 – 0.13 – 0.14 – 0.25 – 0.28 – 0.40 – 0.41 – 0.44 – 0.74 – 0.76 – 0.83 – 1.18 – 1.66 – 1.70 – 2.37 – 2.71 – 2.87 – 2.89 – 2.90 – 2.92 – 2.92 – 2.92 – 3.05 -3- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND CONSTANTS ATOMIC STRUCTURE E = hv c = lv h l= p = mu mu -2.178 ¥ 10 -18 En = joule n2 E v l p = = = = energy frequency wavelength momentum u = velocity n = principal quantum number m = mass Speed of light, c = 3.0 ¥ 108 m s-1 Planck’s constant, h = 6.63 ¥ 10 -34 J s Boltzmann’s constant, k = 1.38 ¥ 10 -23 J K -1 Avogadro’s number = 6.022 ¥ 1023 mol -1 Electron charge, e = -1.602 ¥ 10 -19 coulomb 1 electron volt per atom = 96.5 kJ mol -1 EQUILIBRIUM [H + ][A - ] Ka = [HA] [OH - ][HB+ ] Kb = [B] K w = [OH ][H + ] = 1.0 ¥ 10 -14 @ 25 C = K a ¥ Kb pH = - log [H + ], pOH = - log[OH - ] 14 = pH + pOH pH = pK a + log pOH = pK b + log [A - ] [HA] Equilibrium Constants K a (weak acid) K b (weak base) K w (water) K p (gas pressure) K c (molar concentrations) S = standard entropy H = standard enthalpy G = standard free energy E T n m q c Cp = = = = = = = standard reduction potential temperature moles mass heat specific heat capacity molar heat capacity at constant pressure [HB+ ] [B] pK a = - log K a , pK b = - log K b K p = K c ( RT ) Dn , where D n = moles product gas - moles reactant gas THERMOCHEMISTRY/KINETICS Â S products -Â S reactants DH = Â DHf products -Â DH f reactants DS = DG = Â DGf products -Â DGf reactants DG = DH - T D S = - RT ln K = -2.303 RT log K = -n E DG = DG + RT ln Q = DG + 2.303 RT log Q q = mcDT DH Cp = DT ln [A ] t - ln [A]0 = - kt 1 1 = kt [A] t [A]0 ln k = - Ea 1 + ln A RT Ea = activation energy k = rate constant A = frequency factor Faraday’s constant, = 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons = 0.0821 L atm mol -1 K -1 = 62.4 L torr mol -1 K -1 = 8.31 volt coulomb mol -1 K -1 Gas constant, R = 8.31 J mol -1 K -1 () -4- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLUTIONS PV = nRT Ê n aˆ Á P + 2 ˜ (V - nb) = nRT Ë V¯ 2 PA = Ptotal ¥ X A , where X A = Ptotal = PA + PB + PC + ... m n= M moles A total moles P V T n D m u = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = pressure volume temperature number of moles density mass velocity K = C + 273 PV1 P2V2 1 = T1 T2 m D= V 3kT 3RT urms = = M m 12 KE per molecule = mu 2 3 KE per mole = RT 2 M2 r1 = M1 r2 molarity, M = moles solute per liter solution molality = moles solute per kilogram solvent DT f = iK f ¥ molality DTb = iK b ¥ molality p = iMRT A = abc urms KE r M p i Kf Kb A a b c Q I q t root-mean-square speed kinetic energy rate of effusion molar mass osmotic pressure van’t Hoff factor molal freezing -point depression constant molal boiling -point elevation constant absorbance molar absorptivity path length concentration reaction quotient current (amperes) charge (coulombs) time (seconds) E = standard reduction potential K = equilibrium constant OXIDATION-REDUCTION; ELECTROCHEMISTRY Gas constant, R = 8.31 J mol -1 K -1 = 0.0821 L atm mol -1 K -1 = 62.4 L torr mol -1 K -1 = 8.31 volt coulomb mol -1 K -1 Boltzmann’s constant, k = 1.38 ¥ 10 -23 J K -1 K f for H2 O = 1.86 K kg mol -1 K b for H2 O = 0.512 K kg mol -1 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr STP = 0.00 C and 1.0 atm Faraday’s constant, = 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons Q= I= [C] c [D] d [A] [B] q t a b , where a A + b B Æ c C + d D Ecell = Ecell log K = nE 0.0592 0.0592 RT ln Q = Ecell log Q @ 25 C n n -5- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 2009 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS CHEMISTRY Section II (Total time—95 minutes) Part A Time— 55 minutes YOU MAY USE YOUR CALCULATOR FOR PART A. CLEARLY SHOW THE METHOD USED AND THE STEPS INVOLVED IN ARRIVING AT YOUR ANSWERS. It is to your advantage to do this, since you may obtain partial credit if you do and you will receive little or no credit if you do not. Attention should be paid to significant figures. Be sure to write all your answers to the questions on the lined pages following each question in the booklet with the pink cover. Do NOT write your answers on the green insert. Answer Questions 1, 2, and 3. The Section II score weighting for each question is 20 percent. 1. Answer the following questions that relate to the chemistry of halogen oxoacids. (a) Use the information in the table below to answer part (a)(i). Acid HOCl HOBr Ka at 298 K 2.9 × 10-8 2.4 × 10- 9 (i) Which of the two acids is stronger, HOCl or HOBr ? Justify your answer in terms of Ka . (ii) Draw a complete Lewis electron-dot diagram for the acid that you identified in part (a)(i). (iii) Hypoiodous acid has the formula HOI. Predict whether HOI is a stronger acid or a weaker acid than the acid that you identified in part (a)(i). Justify your prediction in terms of chemical bonding. (b) Write the equation for the reaction that occurs between hypochlorous acid and water. (c) A 1.2 M NaOCl solution is prepared by dissolving solid NaOCl in distilled water at 298 K. The hydrolysis Æ reaction OCl−(aq) + H2O(l) ¨ HOCl(aq) + OH−(aq) occurs. (i) Write the equilibrium-constant expression for the hydrolysis reaction that occurs between OCl -(aq) and H2O(l). (ii) Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant at 298 K for the hydrolysis reaction. (iii) Calculate the value of [OH -] in the 1.2 M NaOCl solution at 298 K . © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. -6- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 2009 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (d) A buffer solution is prepared by dissolving some solid NaOCl in a solution of HOCl at 298 K. The pH of the buffer solution is determined to be 6.48. (i) Calculate the value of [H3O+] in the buffer solution. (ii) Indicate which of HOCl(aq) or OCl−(aq) is present at the higher concentration in the buffer solution. Support your answer with a calculation. 2. A student was assigned the task of determining the molar mass of an unknown gas. The student measured the mass of a sealed 843 mL rigid flask that contained dry air. The student then flushed the flask with the unknown gas, resealed it, and measured the mass again. Both the air and the unknown gas were at 23.0°C and 750. torr. The data for the experiment are shown in the table below. Volume of sealed flask 843 mL Mass of sealed flask and dry air 157.70 g Mass of sealed flask and unknown gas 158.08 g (a) Calculate the mass, in grams, of the dry air that was in the sealed flask. (The density of dry air is 1.18 g L−1 at 23.0°C and 750. torr.) (b) Calculate the mass, in grams, of the sealed flask itself (i.e., if it had no air in it). (c) Calculate the mass, in grams, of the unknown gas that was added to the sealed flask. (d) Using the information above, calculate the value of the molar mass of the unknown gas. After the experiment was completed, the instructor informed the student that the unknown gas was carbon dioxide (44.0 g mol−1). (e) Calculate the percent error in the value of the molar mass calculated in part (d). (f) For each of the following two possible occurrences, indicate whether it by itself could have been responsible for the error in the student’s experimental result. You need not include any calculations with your answer. For each of the possible occurrences, justify your answer. Occurrence 1: The flask was incompletely flushed with CO2(g), resulting in some dry air remaining in the flask. Occurrence 2: The temperature of the air was 23.0°C, but the temperature of the CO2(g) was lower than the reported 23.0°C. (g) Describe the steps of a laboratory method that the student could use to verify that the volume of the rigid flask is 843 mL at 23.0°C. You need not include any calculations with your answer. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. -7- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 2009 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS CH4(g) + 2 Cl2(g) → CH2Cl2(g) + 2 HCl(g) 3. Methane gas reacts with chlorine gas to form dichloromethane and hydrogen chloride, as represented by the equation above. (a) A 25.0 g sample of methane gas is placed in a reaction vessel containing 2.58 mol of Cl2(g). (i) Identify the limiting reactant when the methane and chlorine gases are combined. Justify your answer with a calculation. (ii) Calculate the total number of moles of CH2Cl2(g) in the container after the limiting reactant has been totally consumed. Initiating most reactions involving chlorine gas involves breaking the Cl–Cl bond, which has a bond energy of 242 kJ mol-1. (b) Calculate the amount of energy, in joules, needed to break a single Cl–Cl bond. (c) Calculate the longest wavelength of light, in meters, that can supply the energy per photon necessary to break the Cl–Cl bond. The following mechanism has been proposed for the reaction of methane gas with chlorine gas. All species are in the gas phase. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Æ Cl2 ¨ 2 Cl CH4 + Cl → CH3 + HCl CH3 + Cl2 → CH3Cl + Cl CH3Cl + Cl → CH2Cl2 + H H + Cl → HCl fast equilibrium slow fast fast fast (d) In the mechanism, is CH3Cl a catalyst, or is it an intermediate? Justify your answer. (e) Identify the order of the reaction with respect to each of the following according to the mechanism. In each case, justify your answer. (i) CH4(g) (ii) Cl2(g) STOP If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this part only. Do not turn to the other part of the test until you are told to do so. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. -8- 2009 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS CHEMISTRY Part B Time— 40 minutes NO CALCULATORS MAY BE USED FOR PART B. Answer Question 4 below. The Section II score weighting for this question is 10 percent. 4. For each of the following three reactions, write a balanced equation in part (i) and answer the question in part (ii). In part (i), coefficients should be in terms of lowest whole numbers. Assume that solutions are aqueous unless otherwise indicated. Represent substances in solutions as ions if the substances are extensively ionized. Omit formulas for any ions or molecules that are unchanged by the reaction. You may use the empty space at the bottom of the next page for scratch work, but only equations that are written in the answer boxes provided will be graded. (a) A sample of solid iron(III) oxide is reduced completely with solid carbon. (i) Balanced equation: (ii) What is the oxidation number of carbon before the reaction, and what is the oxidation number of carbon after the reaction is complete? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. -9- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 2009 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (b) Equal volumes of equimolar solutions of ammonia and hydrochloric acid are combined. (i) Balanced equation: (ii) Indicate whether the resulting solution is acidic, basic, or neutral. Explain. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ (c) Solid mercury(II) oxide decomposes as it is heated in an open test tube in a fume hood. (i) Balanced equation: (ii) After the reaction is complete, is the mass of the material in the test tube greater than, less than, or equal to the mass of the original sample? Explain. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ YOU MAY USE THE SPACE BELOW FOR SCRATCH WORK, BUT ONLY EQUATIONS THAT ARE WRITTEN IN THE ANSWER BOXES PROVIDED WILL BE GRADED. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. -10- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 2009 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Answer Question 5 and Question 6. The Section II score weighting for these questions is 15 percent each. Your responses to these questions will be graded on the basis of the accuracy and relevance of the information cited. Explanations should be clear and well organized. Examples and equations may be included in your responses where appropriate. Specific answers are preferable to broad, diffuse responses. Reaction X Y Z Equation DH 298 +131 kJ mol-1 +41 kJ mol-1 ? DS298 +134 J mol-1 K-1 + 42 J mol-1 K-1 ? DG298 +91 kJ mol-1 + 29 kJ mol-1 ? Æ C(s) + H2O(g) ¨ CO(g) + H2(g) Æ CO2(g) + H2(g) ¨ CO(g) + H2O(g) Æ 2 CO(g) ¨ C(s) + CO2(g) 5. Answer the following questions using the information related to reactions X , Y , and Z in the table above. (a) For reaction X , write the expression for the equilibrium constant, Kp . (b) For reaction X , will the equilibrium constant, Kp , increase, decrease, or remain the same if the temperature rises above 298 K ? Justify your answer. (c) For reaction Y at 298 K, is the value of Kp greater than 1, less than 1, or equal to 1? Justify your answer. (d) For reaction Y at 298 K, which is larger: the total bond energy of the reactants or the total bond energy of the products? Explain. (e) Is the following statement true or false? Justify your answer. “On the basis of the data in the table, it can be predicted that reaction Y will occur more rapidly than reaction X will occur.” (f) Consider reaction Z at 298 K. (i) Is ΔS ° for the reaction positive, negative, or zero? Justify your answer. (ii) Determine the value of ΔH ° for the reaction. (iii) A sealed glass reaction vessel contains only CO(g) and a small amount of C(s). If a reaction occurs and the temperature is held constant at 298 K, will the pressure in the reaction vessel increase, decrease, or remain the same over time? Explain. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. -11- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 2009 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 6. Answer the following questions related to sulfur and one of its compounds. (a) Consider the two chemical species S and S2 - . (i) Write the electron configuration (e.g., 1s 2 2s 2 . . .) of each species. (ii) Explain why the radius of the S2− ion is larger than the radius of the S atom. (iii) Which of the two species would be attracted into a magnetic field? Explain. (b) The S2− ion is isoelectronic with the Ar atom. From which species, S2− or Ar, is it easier to remove an electron? Explain. (c) In the H2S molecule, the H –S–H bond angle is close to 90°. On the basis of this information, which atomic orbitals of the S atom are involved in bonding with the H atoms? (d) Two types of intermolecular forces present in liquid H2S are London (dispersion) forces and dipole-dipole forces. (i) Compare the strength of the London (dispersion) forces in liquid H2S to the strength of the London (dispersion) forces in liquid H2O. Explain. (ii) Compare the strength of the dipole-dipole forces in liquid H2S to the strength of the dipole-dipole forces in liquid H2O. Explain. STOP END OF EXAM © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. -12- ...
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