ap09_physics_c_mechanics_sgs - AP® Physics C: Mechanics...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Physics C: Mechanics 2009 Scoring Guidelines The College Board The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,600 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools and 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in college readiness, college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, ® ® enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT , the PSAT/NMSQT and the Advanced ® ® Placement Program (AP ). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities and concerns. © 2009 The College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. V isit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ® AP Central is the official online home for AP teachers : apcentral.collegeboard.com. AP® PHYSICS 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES General Notes About 2009 AP Physics Scoring Guidelines 1. The solutions contain the most common method of solving the free-response questions and the allocation of points for this solution. Some also contain a common alternate solution. Other methods of solution also receive appropriate credit for correct work. 2. Generally, double penalty for errors is avoided. For example, if an incorrect answer to part (a) is correctly substituted into an otherwise correct solution to part (b), full credit will usually be awarded. One exception to this may be cases when the numerical answer to a later part should be easily recognized as wrong, e.g., a speed faster than the speed of light in vacuum. 3. Implicit statements of concepts normally receive credit. For example, if use of the equation expressing a particular concept is worth one point and a student’s solution contains the application of that equation to the problem, but the student does not write the basic equation, the point is still awarded. However, when students are asked to derive an expression it is normally expected that they will begin by writing one or more fundamental equations, such as those given on the AP Physics Exam equation sheet. For a description of the use of such terms as “derive” and “calculate” on the exams, and what is expected for each, see “The FreeResponse Sections⎯Student Presentation” in the AP Physics Course Description. 4. The scoring guidelines typically show numerical results using the value g = 9.8 m s 2 , but use of 10 m s 2 is of course also acceptable. Solutions usually show numerical answers using both values when they are significantly different. 5. Strict rules regarding significant digits are usually not applied to numerical answers. However, in some cases answers containing too many digits may be penalized. In general, two to four significant digits are acceptable. Numerical answers that differ from the published answer due to differences in rounding throughout the question typically receive full credit. Exceptions to these guidelines usually occur when rounding makes a difference in obtaining a reasonable answer. For example, suppose a solution requires subtracting two numbers that should have five significant figures and that differ starting with the fourth digit (e.g., 20.295 and 20.278). Rounding to three digits will lose the accuracy required to determine the difference in the numbers, and some credit may be lost. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® PHYSICS C: MECHANICS 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 15 points total (a) 2 points For indication that total energy is the sum of kinetic and potential energy E = U (x) + K (x) 1 2 E = 4.0 x 2 + m (u ( x )) 2 1 2 2 E = 4.0 J m 2 ( -0.50 m ) + (3.0 kg ) ( 2.0 m s) 2 For correct calculation of the numerical value of the total energy E = 7.0 J 1 point Distribution of points ( ) 1 point (b) 3 points For indication that E = U when K = 0 E = U ( x) E = 4.0 x 2 For substitution of E from (a) into the equation 1 point 7.0 J = 4.0 J m ( 2 )x 1 point 2 x = ± 7.0 4.0 m For including plus and minus signs in final numerical answer x = ±1.3 m (c) 3 points For clear indication that kinetic energy is total energy minus potential energy, using total energy from (a) K = Etot - U 1 point 1 point K = 7.0 J - 4.0 J m 2 (0.60 m ) ( ) 2 = 5.56 J 1 point For using calculated K to solve for u 1 K = mu 2 2 1 5.56 J = (3.0 kg ) u 2 2 u = 1.92 m s For substituting calculated value of u into expression for momentum p = mu = (3.0 kg ) (1.92 m s) = 5.8 kgim s 1 point Note: The final 2 points could also be earned by substituting the kinetic energy directly into the expression relating the kinetic energy and momentum p = 2 mK . © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® PHYSICS C: MECHANICS 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 (continued) Distribution of points (d) 3 points For a correct relationship between force and potential energy Note: This point was awarded if the negative sign was not included, since the question asks for magnitude of the acceleration. dU ( x ) F =dx For an expression or calculated value for force consistent with relationship above d F=4.0 x 2 = -8.0 x dx For application of Newton’s second law using a derived expression or calculated value for force F 8.0 x a= = m m 8.0 kg s2 (0.60 m ) a= 3.0 kg 1 point ( ) 1 point 1 point ( ) a = 1.6 m s2 Alternate Solution E =U+K For a correct energy relationship with potential and kinetic energy substituted 1 7 = 4 x 2 + mu 2 2 Alternate Points 1 point 14 - 8 x 2 = mu 2 For taking the derivative with respect to time of each side of this equation dx du -16 x = 2mu dt dt -16 xu = 2mua -8 x = ma For algebraically solving for acceleration 8x a=m 8.0 kg s2 (0.60 m ) a= 3.0 kg 1 point 1 point ( ) a = 1.6 m s2 © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® PHYSICS C: MECHANICS 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 (continued) Distribution of points (e) 3 points For a minimum of one complete cycle of a sine curve starting at the origin on the x versus t graph For a minimum of one complete cycle of a cosine squared curve starting at the maximum value on the K versus t graph For maxima and minima of the x graph matching the zeroes of the K graph 1 point 1 point 1 point Units point For correct units on all completed nonzero numerical answers 1 point © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® PHYSICS C: MECHANICS 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 15 points total Distribution of points (a) (i) 4 points For the rotational form of Newton’s second law t = Ia For a correct expression of the magnitude of torque For correctly labeling the torque as negative - Mgx sin q = I b a For expressing a as the second time derivative of q Ê d 2q ˆ - Mgx sin q = I b Á 2 ˜ Ë dt ¯ (ii) 4 points 1 point 1 point 1 point 1 point 1 point For the appropriate small angle approximation For small angles, sin q ª q Ê d 2q ˆ - Mgxq = I b Á 2 ˜ Ë dt ¯ Ê d 2q ˆ Ê Mgx ˆ Á 2 ˜ + Á I ˜q = 0 Ë dt ¯ Ë b ¯ For recognizing that the coefficient of q is w 2 Mgx w2 = Ib For the relationship between T and w (this point was awarded for the equation alone or with relevant work, but NOT as part of multiple random equations) 2p T= w For the final expression for T (this point was awarded for the final correct answer with no supporting work) Ib T = 2p Mgx 1 point 1 point 1 point © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® PHYSICS C: MECHANICS 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 (continued) Distribution of points (b) 5 points For an experimental procedure that includes: A valid approach How the variables will be measured or calculated, including equipment to be used How these variables will be used to determine I B How to minimize error Example 1: Displace the bar by a small angle and release it to oscillate. To reduce errors, time 10 complete oscillations with a stopwatch. Calculate the average value of the time for 10 oscillations and then divide by 10 to determine the period T . Calculate I B from T = 2 p I b Mgx , using known values of M and x. Example 2: Locate a photogate at the bottom of the bar’s swing; set it to measure the amount of time the photogate is blocked. While the bar is hanging from its pivot point, displace the bar to a horizontal position and measure the height of the center of mass above the position of the photogate with a meter stick. Allow the bar to swing through the photogate and obtain the time the gate is blocked. To reduce errors, repeat this procedure five times and obtain an average time. Measure the width of the bar and use this and the time to determine the speed of the bar at the bottom of the swing, u = width time . Calculate the angular speed of the bar from 1 point 2 points 1 point 1 point w=u . Apply conservation of energy to the bar: Mgh = I B w 2 2 . Calculate I B from I B = 2 Mgh w 2 , using known values of M, measured value of h, and calculated value of w . (c) 2 points For a valid procedure to locate the center of mass For specifying the equipment to be used Example 1: Place the bar on top of a fulcrum, e.g., the top of a prism. Adjust the position of the bar until it is balanced horizontally. The point at which this occurs is the center of mass. Example 2: Place the bar near the edge of a desk or table. Slowly push the bar so it hangs off the table until it is just ready to tip. The point at which this occurs is the center of mass. 1 point 1 point © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® PHYSICS C: MECHANICS 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 15 points total Distribution of points (a) 4 points For an indication of conservation of energy DU = DK 1 mgh = mu 2 2 The speed of both blocks is uh . For substituting M 2 into the expression for U For substituting d for h in the expression for U MM For substituting the sum of the masses, + , into the expression for K 2 2 M 1M M 2 gd = + u 2 22 2h M 1 2 gd = M uh 2 2 uh = gd 1 point 1 point 1 point 1 point ( ) Alternate Solution For an indication that Newton’s second law applies Fnet = ma Alternate Points 1 point M M g=2 a 2 2 For solving for acceleration g a= 2 For selecting correct kinematics equation(s) 1 u 2 = u0 2 + 2a ( x - x0 ) OR x = at 2 and u = at 2 For substituting d for the vertical + distance g g 1g 2 2 uh = 2a (d ) = 2 (d ) OR d = t and uh = t (and combining by eliminating t) 22 2 2 uh = gd () 1 point 1 point 1 point (b) 2 points Fg = mg For a correct expression for the force Mg Fg = y L Note: Since the stem states “determine,” no work was necessary to earn these points. No partial credit was awarded for this part. © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. 2 points AP® PHYSICS C: MECHANICS 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 (continued) Distribution of points (c) 3 points For a correct integral expression for work. (If the nonintegral form of work was presented, no further work on this part was scored.) W = Ú F dy For substituting F from part (b) into the integral Mg W=Ú y dy L Mg W= y dy LÚ For correct integration Mg 1 2 W= y L2 Mg 2 W= y 2L Alternate Solution For a correct relationship between work and potential energy W = - DU W = mg Dhcm For substituting the expression for force of gravity from (b) For substituting y 2 for Dhcm W= W= 1 point 1 point 1 point Alternate Points 1 point ( M y) g 2y L Mg 2 y 2L 1 point 1 point (d) 3 points For an indication of the work-energy relationship 1 W = DK = mu 2 2 For substituting the expression for W from part (c) For substituting M into expression for DK Mg 2 1 y = M ur2 2L 2 ur = g L y Note: An alternate solution using Newton’s second law and kinematics was also possible. 1 point 1 point 1 point © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP® PHYSICS C: MECHANICS 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 (continued) Distribution of points (e) 3 points For indicating that the speeds are equal For a complete and correct justification, conceptual or symbolic Example 1: Substituting L for d and y in the equations uh = gd and ur = gy 2 L , respectively, yields gL in both cases. Example 2: For the blocks, a mass of M 2 falls a distance L. For the rope, the center of mass of a mass of M falls a distance of L 2 . The same amount of potential energy becomes kinetic energy. Equal total masses gaining equal kinetic energies means they acquire equal speeds. Notes: • Since this part could be answered without making reference to the rest of the problem, it was scored independently. • A correct but incomplete justification was awarded 1 point. 1 point 2 points © 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. ...
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