ap10_frq_chemistry - AP® Chemistry 2010 Free-Response...

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Unformatted text preview: AP® Chemistry 2010 Free-Response Questions The College Board The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the College Board is composed of more than 5,700 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in college readiness, college admission, guidance, assessment, financial aid and enrollment. Among its widely recognized programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®), SpringBoard® and ACCUPLACER®. The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities and concerns. © 2010 The College Board. College Board, ACCUPLACER, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, SpringBoard and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. Admitted Class Evaluation Service is a trademark owned by the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. INFORMATION IN THE TABLE BELOW AND IN THE TABLES ON PAGES 3-5 MAY BE USEFUL IN ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION OF THE EXAMINATION. -2- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. STANDARD REDUCTION POTENTIALS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AT 25∞C Half-reaction F2 ( g) + 2 e Co 3+ 3+ E ∞(V) 2F Co 2+ - Æ Æ +e - Au + 3e - Æ - Au(s) 2 Cl 2 H 2 O(l ) 2 Br Hg22+ Hg(l ) Ag(s) 2 Hg(l ) Fe 2+ 2 ICu(s) Cu(s) Cu+ Sn 2+ H 2S(g ) H2 (g) Pb(s) Sn(s) Ni(s) Co(s) Cd(s) Cr 2+ Fe(s) Cr(s) Zn(s) H 2 ( g ) + 2 OH Mn(s) Al(s) Be(s) Mg(s) Na(s) Ca(s) Sr(s) Cl2 (g ) + 2 e Br2 (l ) + 2 e Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ - O2 (g) + 4 H + + 4 e - 2 Hg2+ + 2 e Hg2+ + 2 e Ag + e + - Hg2 Fe 2+ + 2e - 3+ +e Cu+ + e Cu Cu 2+ 2+ I 2 (s) + 2 e + 2e +e - Sn 4+ + 2 e S(s) + 2 H + + 2 e 2H + 2e + - Pb Sn Ni 2+ 2+ + 2e + 2e + 2e 2+ 2+ 2+ - Co Cd Cr Cr + 2e + 2e +e - 3+ Fe 2+ + 2 e 3+ 2+ + 3e - Zn + 2e 2 H 2 O(l ) + 2 e Mn 2+ + 2 e Al 3+ 2+ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ Æ + 3e - Be + 2e - Mg Ca Sr Ba 2+ + 2e Na + e + 2+ 2+ + 2e + 2e - - - 2+ + + 2e - Ba(s) Rb(s) K ( s) Cs(s) Li(s) Rb + e K +e + + Cs + e Li + e + - 2.87 1.82 1.50 1.36 1.23 1.07 0.92 0.85 0.80 0.79 0.77 0.53 0.52 0.34 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.00 – 0.13 – 0.14 – 0.25 – 0.28 – 0.40 – 0.41 – 0.44 – 0.74 – 0.76 – 0.83 – 1.18 – 1.66 – 1.70 – 2.37 – 2.71 – 2.87 – 2.89 – 2.90 – 2.92 – 2.92 – 2.92 – 3.05 -3- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND CONSTANTS ATOMIC STRUCTURE E = hv c = lv h l= p = mu mu -2.178 ¥ 10 -18 En = joule n2 E v l p = = = = energy frequency wavelength momentum u = velocity n = principal quantum number m = mass Speed of light, c = 3.0 ¥ 108 m s-1 Planck’s constant, h = 6.63 ¥ 10 -34 J s Boltzmann’s constant, k = 1.38 ¥ 10 -23 J K -1 Avogadro’s number = 6.022 ¥ 1023 mol -1 Electron charge, e = -1.602 ¥ 10 -19 coulomb 1 electron volt per atom = 96.5 kJ mol -1 EQUILIBRIUM [H + ][A - ] Ka = [HA] [OH - ][HB+ ] Kb = [B] K w = [OH ][H + ] = 1.0 ¥ 10 -14 @ 25 C = K a ¥ Kb pH = - log [H + ], pOH = - log[OH - ] 14 = pH + pOH pH = pK a + log pOH = pK b + log [A - ] [HA] Equilibrium Constants K a (weak acid) K b (weak base) K w (water) K p (gas pressure) K c (molar concentrations) S = standard entropy H = standard enthalpy G = standard free energy E T n m q c Cp = = = = = = = standard reduction potential temperature moles mass heat specific heat capacity molar heat capacity at constant pressure [HB+ ] [B] pK a = - log K a , pK b = - log K b K p = K c ( RT ) Dn , where D n = moles product gas - moles reactant gas THERMOCHEMISTRY/KINETICS Â S products -Â S reactants DH = Â DHf products -Â DH f reactants DS = DG = Â DGf products -Â DGf reactants DG = DH - T D S = - RT ln K = -2.303 RT log K = -n E DG = DG + RT ln Q = DG + 2.303 RT log Q q = mcDT DH Cp = DT ln [A ] t - ln [A]0 = - kt 1 1 = kt [A] t [A]0 ln k = - Ea 1 + ln A RT Ea = activation energy k = rate constant A = frequency factor Faraday's constant, = 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons = 0.0821 L atm mol -1 K -1 = 62.4 L torr mol -1 K -1 = 8.31 volt coulomb mol -1 K -1 Gas constant, R = 8.31 J mol -1 K -1 () -4- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLUTIONS PV = nRT Ê n2 a ˆ Á P + 2 ˜ (V - nb) = nRT Ë V¯ PA = Ptotal ¥ X A , where X A = Ptotal = PA + PB + PC + ... m n= M moles A total moles P V T n D m u = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = pressure volume temperature number of moles density mass velocity K = C + 273 PV1 P2V2 1 = T1 T2 m D= V 3kT 3RT urms = = M m 12 KE per molecule = mu 2 3 KE per mole = RT 2 M2 r1 = M1 r2 molarity, M = moles solute per liter solution molality = moles solute per kilogram solvent DT f = iK f ¥ molality DTb = iK b ¥ molality p = iMRT A = abc urms KE r M p i Kf Kb A a b c Q I q t root-mean-square speed kinetic energy rate of effusion molar mass osmotic pressure van't Hoff factor molal freezing -point depression constant molal boiling -point elevation constant absorbance molar absorptivity path length concentration reaction quotient current (amperes) charge (coulombs) time (seconds) E = standard reduction potential K = equilibrium constant OXIDATION-REDUCTION; ELECTROCHEMISTRY Gas constant, R = 8.31 J mol -1 K -1 = 0.0821 L atm mol -1 K -1 = 62.4 L torr mol -1 K -1 = 8.31 volt coulomb mol -1 K -1 Boltzmann's constant, k = 1.38 ¥ 10 -23 J K -1 K f for H2 O = 1.86 K kg mol -1 K b for H2 O = 0.512 K kg mol -1 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr STP = 0.00 C and 1.0 atm Faraday's constant, = 96,500 coulombs per mole of electrons Q= I= [C] c [D] d [A] [B] q t a b , where a A + b B Æ c C + d D Ecell = Ecell log K = nE 0.0592 0.0592 RT ln Q = Ecell log Q @ 25 C n n -5- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 2010 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS CHEMISTRY Section II (Total time—95 minutes) Part A Time— 55 minutes YOU MAY USE YOUR CALCULATOR FOR PART A. CLEARLY SHOW THE METHOD USED AND THE STEPS INVOLVED IN ARRIVING AT YOUR ANSWERS. It is to your advantage to do this, since you may obtain partial credit if you do and you will receive little or no credit if you do not. Attention should be paid to significant figures. Be sure to write all your answers to the questions on the lined pages following each question in the booklet with the pink cover. Do NOT write your answers on the green insert. Answer Questions 1, 2, and 3. The Section II score weighting for each question is 20 percent. 1. Several reactions are carried out using AgBr, a cream-colored silver salt for which the value of the solubilityproduct constant, Ksp , is 5.0 × 10−13 at 298 K. (a) Write the expression for the solubility-product constant, Ksp , of AgBr. (b) Calculate the value of [Ag+] in 50.0 mL of a saturated solution of AgBr at 298 K. (c) A 50.0 mL sample of distilled water is added to the solution described in part (b), which is in a beaker with some solid AgBr at the bottom. The solution is stirred and equilibrium is reestablished. Some solid AgBr remains in the beaker. Is the value of [Ag+] greater than, less than, or equal to the value you calculated in part (b) ? Justify your answer. (d) Calculate the minimum volume of distilled water, in liters, necessary to completely dissolve a 5.0 g sample of AgBr(s) at 298 K. (The molar mass of AgBr is 188 g mol-1.) (e) A student mixes 10.0 mL of 1.5 × 10− 4 M AgNO3 with 2.0 mL of 5.0 × 10− 4 M NaBr and stirs the resulting mixture. What will the student observe? Justify your answer with calculations. (f) The color of another salt of silver, AgI(s), is yellow. A student adds a solution of NaI to a test tube containing a small amount of solid, cream-colored AgBr. After stirring the contents of the test tube, the student observes that the solid in the test tube changes color from cream to yellow. (i) Write the chemical equation for the reaction that occurred in the test tube. (ii) Which salt has the greater value of Ksp : AgBr or AgI ? Justify your answer. © 2010 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -6- 2010 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 2. A student performs an experiment to determine the molar enthalpy of solution of urea, H2NCONH2 . The student places 91.95 g of water at 25°C into a coffee-cup calorimeter and immerses a thermometer in the water. After 50 s, the student adds 5.13 g of solid urea, also at 25°C, to the water and measures the temperature of the solution as the urea dissolves. A plot of the temperature data is shown in the graph below. (a) Determine the change in temperature of the solution that results from the dissolution of the urea. (b) According to the data, is the dissolution of urea in water an endothermic process or an exothermic process? Justify your answer. (c) Assume that the specific heat capacity of the calorimeter is negligible and that the specific heat capacity of the solution of urea and water is 4.2 J g-1 °C-1 throughout the experiment. (i) Calculate the heat of dissolution of the urea in joules. (ii) Calculate the molar enthalpy of solution, DH soln , of urea in kJ mol-1. (d) Using the information in the table below, calculate the value of the molar entropy of solution, DSsoln , of urea at 298 K. Include units with your answer. Accepted Value DH soln of urea DGsoln of urea 14.0 kJ mol-1 - 6.9 kJ mol -1 (e) The student repeats the experiment and this time obtains a result for DH soln of urea that is 11 percent below the accepted value. Calculate the value of DH soln that the student obtained in this second trial. (f) The student performs a third trial of the experiment but this time adds urea that has been taken directly from a refrigerator at 5°C. What effect, if any, would using the cold urea instead of urea at 25°C have on the experimentally obtained value of DH soln ? Justify your answer. © 2010 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -7- 2010 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 8 H +(aq) + 4 Cl −(aq) + MnO4−(aq) → 2 Cl2(g) + Mn3+(aq) + 4 H2O(l) 3. Cl2 (g) can be generated in the laboratory by reacting potassium permanganate with an acidified solution of sodium chloride. The net-ionic equation for the reaction is given above. (a) A 25.00 mL sample of 0.250 M NaCl reacts completely with excess KMnO4(aq). The Cl2 (g) produced is dried and stored in a sealed container. At 22°C the pressure of the Cl2(g) in the container is 0.950 atm. (i) Calculate the number of moles of Cl −(aq) present before any reaction occurs. (ii) Calculate the volume, in L, of the Cl2 (g) in the sealed container. An initial-rate study was performed on the reaction system. Data for the experiment are given in the table below. Trial 1 2 3 [Cl-] 0.0104 0.0312 0.0312 [MnO4-] 0.00400 0.00400 0.00200 [H+] 3.00 3.00 3.00 Rate of Disappearance of MnO4- in M s-1 2.25 × 10-8 2.03 × 10-7 1.02 × 10-7 (b) Using the information in the table, determine the order of the reaction with respect to each of the following. Justify your answers. (i) Cl(ii) MnO4(c) The reaction is known to be third order with respect to H+. Using this information and your answers to part (b) above, complete both of the following: (i) Write the rate law for the reaction. (ii) Calculate the value of the rate constant, k , for the reaction, including appropriate units. (d) Is it likely that the reaction occurs in a single elementary step? Justify your answer. STOP If you finish before time is called, you may check your work on this part only. Do not turn to the other part of the test until you are told to do so. © 2010 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. -8- 2010 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS CHEMISTRY Part B Time— 40 minutes NO CALCULATORS MAY BE USED FOR PART B. Answer Question 4 below. The Section II score weighting for this question is 10 percent. 4. For each of the following three reactions, write a balanced equation for the reaction in part (i) and answer the question about the reaction in part (ii). In part (i), coefficients should be in terms of lowest whole numbers. Assume that solutions are aqueous unless otherwise indicated. Represent substances in solutions as ions if the substances are extensively ionized. Omit formulas for any ions or molecules that are unchanged by the reaction. You may use the empty space at the bottom of the next page for scratch work, but only equations that are written in the answer boxes provided will be scored. (a) A 0.2 M potassium hydroxide solution is titrated with a 0.1 M nitric acid solution. (i) Balanced equation: (ii) What would be observed if the solution was titrated well past the equivalence point using bromthymol blue as the indicator? (Bromthymol blue is yellow in acidic solution and blue in basic solution.) ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ © 2010 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -9- 2010 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (b) Propane is burned completely in excess oxygen gas. (i) Balanced equation: (ii) When the products of the reaction are bubbled through distilled water, is the resulting solution neutral, acidic, or basic? Explain. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ (c) A solution of hydrogen peroxide is heated, and a gas is produced. (i) Balanced equation: (ii) Identify the oxidation state of oxygen in hydrogen peroxide. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ YOU MAY USE THE SPACE BELOW FOR SCRATCH WORK, BUT ONLY EQUATIONS THAT ARE WRITTEN IN THE ANSWER BOXES PROVIDED WILL BE SCORED. © 2010 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -10- 2010 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Answer Question 5 and Question 6. The Section II score weighting for these questions is 15 percent each. Your responses to these questions will be scored on the basis of the accuracy and relevance of the information cited. Explanations should be clear and well organized. Examples and equations may be included in your responses where appropriate. Specific answers are preferable to broad, diffuse responses. 5. Use the information in the table below to respond to the statements and questions that follow. Your answers should be in terms of principles of molecular structure and intermolecular forces. Compound Formula CH3CH2SH Lewis Electron-Dot Diagram Ethanethiol Ethane CH3CH3 Ethanol CH3CH2OH Ethyne C2H2 (a) Draw the complete Lewis electron-dot diagram for ethyne in the appropriate cell in the table above. (b) Which of the four molecules contains the shortest carbon-to-carbon bond? Explain. (c) A Lewis electron-dot diagram of a molecule of ethanoic acid is given below. The carbon atoms in the molecule are labeled x and y , respectively. Identify the geometry of the arrangement of atoms bonded to each of the following. (i) Carbon x (ii) Carbon y (d) Energy is required to boil ethanol. Consider the statement “As ethanol boils, energy goes into breaking C − C bonds, C − H bonds, C − O bonds, and O − H bonds.” Is the statement true or false? Justify your answer. (e) Identify a compound from the table above that is nonpolar. Justify your answer. (f) Ethanol is completely soluble in water, whereas ethanethiol has limited solubility in water. Account for the difference in solubilities between the two compounds in terms of intermolecular forces. © 2010 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -11- 2010 AP® CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 2 Al(s) + 3 Zn2+(aq) → 2 Al3+(aq) + 3 Zn(s) 6. Respond to the following statements and questions that relate to the species and the reaction represented above. (a) Write the complete electron configuration (e.g., 1 s2 2 s2 . . .) for Zn2+. (b) Which species, Zn or Zn2+ , has the greater ionization energy? Justify your answer. (c) Identify the species that is oxidized in the reaction. The diagram below shows a galvanic cell based on the reaction. Assume that the temperature is 25°C. (d) The diagram includes a salt bridge that is filled with a saturated solution of KNO3 . Describe what happens in the salt bridge as the cell operates. (e) Determine the value of the standard voltage, E°, for the cell. (f) Indicate whether the value of the standard free-energy change, ΔG °, for the cell reaction is positive, negative, or zero. Justify your answer. (g) If the concentration of Al(NO3)3 in the Al(s)/Al3+(aq) half-cell is lowered from 1.0 M to 0.01 M at 25°C, does the cell voltage increase, decrease, or remain the same? Justify your answer. STOP END OF EXAM © 2010 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. -12- ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2011 for the course CHEM 504 taught by Professor John during the Fall '11 term at American College of Computer & Information Sciences.

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