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Theo 220-02 study guide-test 1

Theo 220-02 study guide-test 1 - Chapter 1 Apocalyptic an...

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Chapter 1 Apocalyptic: an adjective derived from apocalypse, it typically refers to visions of the unseen world, such as God’s heavenly throne, the habitation of angels, or the Underworld, as well as to the Deity’s future plans for human history Aramaic: The language of the Arameans (ancient Syrians), a West Semitic tounge used in parts of Mesopotamia from about 1000 BCE. After the Babylonian captivity, it became the common language of Palestinian Jews and was probably the language spoken by Jesus Covenant: A vow, agreement, or contract b/w two parties, a model of the relationship b/w God and his people. In Exodus, Yahweh makes a covenant with Israel in which the people agree to obey all his laws and instruction and to worship him exclusively Eschatology: Beliefs about the supernaturally directed destiny of humanity and the universe; from the Greek word meaning “study of last things”. Associated with an apocalyptic worldview, it has both personal and general applications: 1. Beliefs about the individual soul following death, including divine judgment, heaven, hell, and resurrection. 2. Larger concerns about the fate of the cosmos, including convictions about a divinely guided renewal of the world and human society in the near future or in the present Gospel: 1. The Christian message, literally meaning “good news.” 2. The literary form of Christian narratives about Jesus or compilations of his teachings Messiah: A Hebrew term meaning “anointed one,” designating a king or priest of ancient Israel who had been consecrated by having holy oil poured on his head, making him as set apart for a special role. Christians later come to define it as Christ. Pentateuch: The first five books of the Hebrew Bible, the Torah; from a Greek work meaning “five scrolls.” Septuagint: A Greek edition of the Hebrew Bible traditionally attributed to seventy or seventy-two Palestinian scholars during the reign of Ptolemy II, but actually the work of several generations of Alexandrine translators, begun about 250 BCE and not completed until the first century CE. The later additions to it were deleted from the standard Hebrew Bible but included in the Old Testament as the Apocrypha Torah: The Pentateuch and in a general sense all the Hebrew canonical writings, which are traditionally regarded as a direct oracle, or revelation, from Yahweh. Yahweh: A translation of the sacred name of Israel’s God, represented almost 7,000 times in the canonical Hebrew Bible by the four consonants of the tetragrammaton Chapter 2 Canon: 1. A list of books that a religious community finds sacred and authoritative. 2. A standard by which religious beliefs or documents are judged acceptable Gnosticism: A widespread and extremely diverse movement in early Christianity. Followers believed that salvation is gained through a special knowledge revealed through a spiritual savior and is the property of an elite few who have been initiated into its mysteries. In its various forms, it became a major heresy in the early church Vulgate:
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