4 - Fundamentals of Circuits

4 - Fundamentals of Circuits - Fundamentals of Circuits...

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Unformatted text preview: Fundamentals of Circuits Due: 11:55pm on Friday, April 15, 2011 Note: You will receive no credit for late submissions. To learn more, read your instructor's Grading Policy [Switch to Standard Assignment View ] Kirchhoff's Rules and Applying Them Learning Goal: To understand the origins of both of Kirchhoff's rules and how to use them to solve a circuit problem. This problem introduces Kirchhoff's two rules for circuits: Kirchhoff's loop rule : The sum of the voltage changes across the circuit elements forming any closed loop is zero. Kirchhoff's junction rule : The algebraic sum of the currents into (or out of) any junction in the circuit is zero. The figure shows a circuit that illustrates the concept of loops , which are colored red and labeled loop 1 and loop 2. Loop 1 is the loop around the entire circuit, whereas loop 2 is the smaller loop on the right. To apply the loop rule you would add the voltage changes of all circuit elements around the chosen loop. The figure contains two junctions (where three or more wires meet)--they are at the ends of the resistor labeled . The battery supplies a constant voltage , and the resistors are labeled with their resistances. The ammeters are ideal meters that read and respectively. The direction of each loop and the direction of each current arrow that you draw on your own circuits are arbitrary. Just assign voltage drops consistently and sum both voltage drops and currents algebraically and you will get correct equations. If the actual current is in the opposite direction from your current arrow, your answer for that current will be negative. The direction of any loop is even less imporant: The equation obtained from a counterclockwise loop is the same as that from a clockwise loop except for a negative sign in front of every term (i.e., an inconsequential change in overall sign of the equation because it equals zero). Part A The junction rule describes the conservation of which quantity? Note that this rule applies only to circuits that are in a steady state. Hint A.1 At the junction Think of the analogy with water flow. If a certain current of water comes to a split in the pipe, what can you say (mathematically) about the sum of the three water currents at this junction? If this were not true, water would accumulate at the junction. ANSWER: Correct current voltage resistance Part B Apply the junction rule to the junction labeled with the number 1 (at the bottom of the resistor of resistance ). Answer in terms of given quantities, together with the meter readings and and the current . If you apply the juncion rule to the junction above , you should find that the ezpression you get is equivalent to what you just obtained for the junction labeled 1....
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This note was uploaded on 05/06/2011 for the course PHYSICS PH213 taught by Professor Jensen during the Spring '11 term at Chemeketa.

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4 - Fundamentals of Circuits - Fundamentals of Circuits...

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