365 S2011 L17 - 15 Cholesterol 1. Present in membranes 2....

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1 Sources of Triacylglycerols Diet (70-120 g/day) Production in the liver (Acetyl CoA)
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2 Glycerophospholipids X can be a variety of groups ethanolamine, choline, serine, glycerol, inositol Phospholipids are amphipathic
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3
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4 Why are (glycero)phospholipids important? 1. Building blocks of membranes 2. Substrates for enzymes that are involved in signal transduction
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5 Phospholipids are hydrolyzed by a variety of phospholipases
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6 Phospholipase A 2
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7 Sphingolipids based on sphingosine
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8 Sphingomyelins Ceramides bearing phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine
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9 Myelin
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10
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11 Sphingolipids 1. Sphingomyelins ( phospholipids ) 2. Cerebrosides (glycosphingolipids) contain a single sugar 3. Gangliosides (glycosphingolipids) contain complex sugar chains Ceramide
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12 Sphingomyelins Cerebrosides Gangliosides
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13 Steroids or sterols
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14 Steroid functions 1. Structural component of membranes cholesterol 2. Help digest lipids bile salts 3. Hormones estrogens androgens progestins glucocorticoids mineralocorticoids
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Unformatted text preview: 15 Cholesterol 1. Present in membranes 2. Precursor for all other steroid hormones 3. Can be converted into bile salts in the liver 16 Diet All cells can synthesize Cholesterol The liver converts cholesterol into bile acids Cholesterol balance 17 Steroid receptors are transcription factors Steroids 18 Bile salts 19 Eicosanoids 1. Synthesized from Arachidonic acid 2. Leukotrienes, prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins 3. Regulate pain, fever, blood pressure, coagulation and reproduction 4. Produced and act locally at low concentrations 5. (10-12 to 10-14 M) 6. Short half-lifes (seconds) 20 Inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis 21 Lipid Soluble Vitamins Vitamin D (sterol derivative) Ca 2+ uptake Vitamin A (retinol) retinal/photoreception Vitamin E may be an antioxidant Vitamin K coenzyme (glutamate carboxylation)...
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365 S2011 L17 - 15 Cholesterol 1. Present in membranes 2....

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