365 S2011 L19 - Transmembrane regions 1 2 Non-polar-helical...

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1 1. Non-polar α -helical backbone carbonyl oxygen and amide proton are involved in H-bonding 2. Amphipathic β -sheets can also function as transmembrane domains (barrels) hydrophylic aa point to the core of the barrel-shaped sheet hydrophobic aa point outwards Transmembrane regions
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2 Porins are β -barrels They are present in the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria
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3
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4 Lipid-linked proteins 3 varieties 1. Prenylated proteins 2. Fatty acylated proteins 3. GPI-linked proteins
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5 Prenylated proteins • Lipids build from isoprene farnesylated and geranylgeranylated proteins • Attached to Cys (carboxy-terminus) Caax box – C — cysteine – a — aliphatic – x — Ala, Met or Ser: farnesylated – x — Leu: geranylgeranylated
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6
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7 1. lipid is attached 2. carboxy-terminal 3 residues are removed 3. carboxyl group is methylated Prenylation Linkage: thioether
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8 Ras proteins are farnesylated
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9 Fatty acylated proteins 1. Myristic acid (C14) Attached to the amino-group of glycine (amide) 2. Palmitic acid (C16) Attached to cysteine (thioester)
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365 S2011 L19 - Transmembrane regions 1 2 Non-polar-helical...

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