365 S2011 L22 - 1 Na K-ATPase helps maintaining gradient...

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2 • Regulation of osmotic pressure • Maintaining membrane potential • Maintaining sodium and potassium gradients Na + , K + -ATPase helps maintaining gradient for Na + and K + and the membrane potential
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3 Lactose permease
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5 Glucose transport
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6 Glucose transport is driven by the Na + gradient
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7 Enzymatic catalysis • General properties • Activation energy • Catalytic mechanisms • Lysozyme • Serine proteases
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8 Discovery of enzymes Fermentation in vitro – turning glucose into ethanol Pasteur postulated the “vital force” Yeast extracts were able to make carry out the reaction Enzymes were eventually puri±ed from cell extracts
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9 Life is based on enzyme catalyzed reactions 1. Enzymes increase the reaction rate (10 6 -10 12 ) 2. Make it possible for reactions to take place a milder conditions 3. Greater reaction speciFcity 4. Couple reactions 5. Regulation Enzymatic catalysis Why?
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10 Enzymes are usually proteins
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Cofactors Inorganic - metal ions – Mn
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365 S2011 L22 - 1 Na K-ATPase helps maintaining gradient...

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