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10_352 - L ectu re 1 0 Quantifying genetic variation Todays...

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Lecture 10: Quantifying genetic variation Today s topics: 1. Gene pools 2. Genotype frequencies 3. Allele frequencies 4. Genetic variation in nature Readings Readings Pierce: Pierce: 333-337, 361-367 333-337, 361-367 Evolution is “genetic change in a population over time” -> the population is the unit of evolution . Population: all the individuals of one species that are present and interbreeding at a specific geographic location Why population genetics?
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Gene pool : all gene copies in the population The size of the gene pool is 2*N N = # individuals breeding gene pool allele A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 Gene pools Each individual has 2 gene copies Population genetics : study of how allele frequencies change in populations = how populations evolve gene pool allele A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 Gene pools Each individual has 2 gene copies
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Gene pools can be described with: 1. relative genotype frequencies (0.0 to 1.0) 2. relative allele frequencies (0.0 to 1.0) Describing gene pools Example : MN blood group system. Single gene controls red blood cell antigens, alleles are M and N Blood groups for 1,029 residents of Hong Kong Genotype Observed # MM 342 M N 500 NN 187 Total 1029 Describing gene pools
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Relative frequency = the percent of each genotype Genotype Observed # MM 342 M N 500 NN 187 Total 1029 Genotype frequencies Genotype Freq.
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