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# 11_352 - L e c t u r e 1 1 R a n d o m m a t in g a n d T h...

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Lecture 11: Random mating and The Hardy-Weinberg principle Today s topics: 1. The Hardy-Weinberg Principle 2. Does a gene pool have H-W frequencies? 3. Example: HWE test 4. Example: Cystic fibrosis Readings: Readings: Pierce: Pierce: 337-341 Evolution is testable and predictive. Theory (such as the Hardy-Weinberg Principle ) predicts how evolution should occur. The Hardy-Weinberg Principle Define evolution again

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The Hardy-Weinberg Principle 1908: proposed by G.H. Hardy and W. Weinberg Hardy-Weinberg Law Under model assumptions, a gene pool will have 1)constant allele frequencies over time 2)predictable genotype frequencies (= p 2 , 2 pq , q 2 for 2 alleles) The H-W Equilibrium If the gene pool meets these two predictions, it is at equilibrium , and no evolution occurs. The H-W Law works because of the nature of sexual reproduction: 1. Model for one population, alleles A and a . p = f( A ), q = f( a ). Very often, p is for dominant allele, q for recessive. The Hardy-Weinberg Model
1. p = f( A ), q = f( a ) 2. Gametes from males and females are put into separate “jars” (gamete pools). The Hardy-Weinberg Model sperm gamete pool egg gamete pool Assume that every male makes many sperm and every female makes many eggs. Effectively, an infinite gamete pool. this is why we can summarize with frequencies. BUT not infinite number of individuals Since the math is the same, we consider only one "gamete pool", without keeping track of eggs and sperm separately.

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