Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Assessing Community Resources Community Needs Assessment Community Needs Assessment
• It is a process that:
– Evaluates the health and nutritional status of the community – Determines the needs of the community and examines where needs are not being met – Determines resources available to address community needs Community Needs Assessment Community Needs Assessment
• Examines Health Status
– Condition of a population’s or individual’s health including quality of life and physical and psychosocial functioning – Condition of a population’s or individual’s health as influenced by the intake and utilization of nutrients and nonnutrients. • Examines Nutritional Status • • • Community analysis and diagnosis Health education planning Mapping Additional Names for a Additional Names for a Community Needs Assessment Why Conduct a Community Needs Why Conduct a Community Needs Assessment?
• Need for new data on a community’s health and nutritional status • Mandated by a government agency • New research findings and awareness of a problem • Money available to examine the community Steps in a Community Needs Steps in a Community Needs Assessment
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Define the nutritional problem Set the parameters of the assessment Collect the data Analyze and interpret the data Share the findings of the assessment Set priorities Choose a plan of action Step 1: Define the nutritional Step 1: Define the nutritional problem
• Write a concise statement of the problem that is of concern stating who is affected and how many people are affected.
– “What is the nutritional problem?” – Developed from secondary and primary data
• Secondary data data collected by someone else and available in a database • Primary data – new data you collect yourself Step 2: Set assessment parameters Step 2: Set assessment parameters
• • • • Define the community – people or place. Determine the purpose of the needs assessment. Define the target population. Set goals and objectives. – Goals = broad statement or statements that indicates what the assessment intends to accomplish – Objective = statements of outcomes and activities needed to reach a goal • A community needs assessment should contains strong “assessment” verbs such as identify, describe, count (NOT change verbs such as increase, improve, etc.) • Each objective states a single purpose. • Specify the types of data needed (depends upon the purpose, goals & objectives) Step 3: Collect data Step 3: Collect data
• Types of data
– Qualitative (opinions & insights)
• Key informants • Stakeholders • Numerical data – Quantitative • Community, environmental, & socioeconomic characteristics • Sources of data (Tables 22 & 23 & new data) Definitions Definitions
– The number of new cases during a specific time period in a defined population – The number of existing cases of a disease or other condition in a given population • Prevalence • Community diagnosis Step 4: Analyze and interpret the Step 4: Analyze and interpret the data
– Interpret the state of health of the target population within the community – Interpret the pattern of health care services and programs designed to reach the target population – Interpret the relationship between the target population’s health status and health care in the community – Summarize the evidence linking the target population’s major nutritional problem to their environment Step 4: Analyze and interpret the Step 4: Analyze and interpret the data
• Prepare an executive summary
– captures 3 or 4 key points that have emerged from the assessment Step 5: Share the findings of the Step 5: Share the findings of the assessment
Cost effective Reduced duplication of effort Promotes cooperation among organizations and agencies • Enlarges the sphere of awareness about the nutritional problem • Increases the likelihood that more than one agency will address the problem • • • Step 6: Set priorities Step 6: Set priorities
• Who is to get what at whose expense? • Which health outcome is most important? – The health outcome is the effect of an intervention on the health and wellbeing of an individual or population. Set priorities (Table 26) Set priorities (Table 26)
• Community priorities, preferences, and concerns should be given priority. • Higher priority should be given to common problems rather than rare ones. • Higher priority should be given to serious problems rather than less serious ones. • The health problems of mothers and children that can easily be prevented should have a higher priority than those that are more difficult to prevent. • Higher priority should be given to health problems whose frequencies are increasing over time than to those whose frequencies are declining or remaining static. Step 7: Choose a plan of action Step 7: Choose a plan of action
• With the newfound information it is time to do something!
– – – – – Share key findings Use key findings to change public policy Organize a workshop Alter an existing program Develop a new program Research Tools Research Tools
• Comprehensive community and individual assessment instruments • http://cwh.berkeley.edu/resource/centeradvanced ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/07/2011 for the course HUEC 3116 taught by Professor Turri during the Spring '11 term at LSU.
- Spring '11