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Chapter_14_World_Hunger_and_Food_Insecurity - Chapter 14...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14 Chapter World Hunger and Food World Insecurity Insecurity Hunger in the World Hunger Soaring food prices have triggered worldwide concern about threats to global food security The Numbers The In 2007 the number of chronically hungry people in the world rose by 75 million and now stands at 923 million people The proportion of people who suffer from hunger in the total population remains highest in sub­Saharan Africa where one in three is chronically hungry. FAO Hunger Reduction Goal FAO Reduce the number of hungry people by 500 million by 2015 The current increase in food prices further threatens achievement of this goal Moving Away from Hunger Reduction Goals Reduction Early gains in hunger reduction achieved in a number of developing regions by the mid­1990’s have not been sustained Who are the Hungry? Who Persons living in countries afflicted by emergencies Those living in developing countries Persons from countries with poor agricultural and resource bases The poor in both urban and rural areas • severe weather and conflict • particularly landless and female­headed households Why? Why? “There is a discrepancy between what could (an should) be done, and what is actually being done for the millions of people suffering from hunger.” FAO State of Food Insecurity in the World 2006 Why? Why? Soaring food prices Unequal access to resources Unjust economic systems Conflict leads to food insecurity Food insecurity leads to conflict Environmental abuse Inappropriate technology Any and all of the above combines with high population growth Who Cares? Who All people need food. Hunger compromises the health and productivity of individuals. Hunger contributes to conflict and instability. The State of Food Insecurity in the World World •Published in 2009 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations •Focuses on the critical importance of reducing hunger, both as explicit target of the World Food Summit and the Millennium Development Goals http:// www.wfp.org/content/state­food­insecurity­world­2009 Key Messages Key World hunger is increasing High food prices share much of the blame The poorest, landless and female­headed households are the hardest hit Initial governmental policy responses have had limited effect High food prices are also an opportunity A comprehensive twin­track approach is required World Food Summit 2009 World Met it Rome November 16­18, 2009 World Food Summit 2009 2008 G8 Summit Leaders of the world’s most industrialized nations met July 2008, in Japan “The steep rise in global food prices, coupled with availability problems in a number of developing countries is threatening global food security.” 2008 G8 Summit United Nations Millennium Development Goals Development Food security impacts each of the goals Millennium Development Goals (MDG) of the United Nations (MDG) Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger • Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than US$1 a day • Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. MDG #1 Progress MDG Proportion of people undernourished in the developing world • • • 20% in 1990­92 18% in 1995­97 16% in 2003­05 With rising food prices, the estimates show that the proportion of undernourished people worldwide is moving back towards 17% Hunger and Poverty Hunger Hunger itself acts as a barrier to escaping poverty. Hunger is not only a consequence but also a cause of poverty. Women and Children are Particularly Vulnerable Vulnerable More likely to suffer from • • • • • Neonatal disorders Diarrhea Malaria HIV/AIDS Measles On average only 40­50% of children under two years of age living in sub­Saharan Africa have appropriately diversified diets Most Prevalent Macronutrient Deficiencies Deficiencies Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) • Kwashiorkor – protein­energy deficiency • Marasmus – inadequate intake of food Vitamin A Most Prevalent Micronutrient Deficiencies Deficiencies Zinc Iron • Deficiency increases the risk of death from diarrhea, measles, and malaria by 20­24% • Causes blindness or partial blindness is an estimated 500,000 children • Deficiency increases the risk of dying from diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria by 13­21% • Iron deficiency anemia in early childhood is associated with decreased cognitive abilities and resistance to disease • Major preventable cause of mental retardation worldwide Iodine MDG 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Hungry Children Hungry Children • Start school later • Drop out sooner • Learn less while they do attend MDG 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Empower Poor Nutrition for Women • Undermines women’s health • Stunts their opportunities for education and employment • Impedes progress toward gender equality and empowerment of women MDG 4: Reduce Child Mortality MDG Hunger and malnutrition are the direct or indirect cause of more than half of all child deaths worldwide. MDG 5: Improve Maternal Health MDG Hunger and malnutrition have been found to increase both the incidence and fatality rate of the conditions that cause up to 80% of maternal deaths. • Stunting during childhood – more vulnerable to obstructed labor • Anemia – heightened risk of hemorrhage and post­delivery infection • Vitamin A deficiency – greater risk for sepsis • Iodine deficiency – miscarriages and still birth • Calcium deficiency – increased risk for high blood pressure and eclampsia MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and other Diseases and Hunger spurs risky behaviors that accelerates the spread of HIV/AIDS Under nourished children are more than twice as likely to die of malaria HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis HIV/AIDS, All are diseases of hunger and poverty The overwhelming majority of cases occur in developing countries especially in sub­Saharan Africa and southern Asia • ~ 22 million people are now living with AIDS (60% of them in sub­Saharan Africa) • Malaria kills more than 1 million people per year (90% of cases in Africa, mainly young children) • There are ~ 8 million new active cases of tuberculosis each year (5 million in south Asia and sub­Saharan Africa MDG 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability Sustainability Hunger leads to unsustainable use of resources Restoring and improving ecosystem functions are key to reducing hunger among the rural poor. • expanded public investment in rural infrastructure and essential services • increased resources devoted to more sustainable technologies that support more­intensive agriculture that assist farmers to increase the resilience of their food production systems and cope with climate change. Empowering the Rural Poor Empowering “The lives of the rural poor are interwoven with the surrounding environment in ways that make them both particularly valuable as custodians of environmental resources and particularly vulnerable to environmental degradation.” The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2005 Targets for ensuring environmental sustainability sustainability Measures of deforestation • In 1990 9.4 million hectares of forests were felled and burned (~the size of Portugal) mostly in Africa and the Caribbean Use of solid fuels Access to improved water and sanitation facilities MDG 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development for Subsidies and tariffs in developed countries hamper hunger­reducing rural and agricultural development Global Partnership Global “While the first seven MDGs focus on objectives that must be attained largely through the efforts of the governments of developing countries themselves, the last (MDG #8) highlights the responsibility of wealthier industrialized nations to assist those efforts.” The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2005 Global Partnership Recommendations Global Increased aid More equitable trade Relief from the crushing burden of debt Better access to technology, medicines, and jobs Low Income Food Deficit Countries Low http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/lifdc.asp?lan As of 2011 are 70 low­income food­deficit countries LIFDC Classification Criteria LIFDC 1.A country with a per capita income below the “historical” ceiling used by the World Bank to determine eligibility for assistance. Historical ceiling per capita GNP for 2008 was $1,855 in U. S. dollars LIFDC Classification Criteria LIFDC 2.The county’s gross imports for certain foodstuffs (cereals, roots and tubers, pulses, oilseeds and oils other than tree crop oils, meat and dairy products) must exceed gross exports for the past three years (2006­2008). LIFDC Classification Criteria LIFDC 3.A country is allowed a self­exclusion criteria when the country meets criteria 1 & 2 and specifically request to be excluded from the list. A Quote from George McGovern, former U.S. Senator and U.S. Ambassador to the UN Agencies on Food and Agriculture in Rome 1996 Rome “Hunger is a political condition. The earth has enough knowledge and resource to eradicate this ancient scourge. Hunger has plagues the world for thousands of years. But ending it is a greater moral imperative now than ever before, because for the first time humanity has the instruments in hand to defeat this cruel enemy at a very reasonable cost.” The Third Freedom: Ending Hunger in Out Time ...
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