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# c - Stress Introduction What is Stress Normal Stress Units...

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Stress Introduction What is Stress? Normal Stress Units

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Example Stress Calculations 0.1 inch Dia. Rod 1.0 inch Dia. Rod
Introduction to Stress - continued Internal forces develop within objects due to external forces and moments applied to an object. These internal forces are developed due to the stretching of numerous atomic bonds between atoms that make-up materials. The average intensity of these internal forces is defined as the stress or force per unit area. The internal force or stress developed in an object depends on the geometric characteristics of the object such as the cross-sectional area. The type of material used to make the object also plays a role, since the stresses acting on the object can cause it to deflect, deform, or fracture.

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Make an imaginary cut through a bar with an applied external force, P , to view the internal forces or stress acting within the bar. P P P
The stress, σ , represents the intensity of the internal forces due to the action of the removed part of the bar. The stress is continuously distributed over the entire cross-section. The FBD can be used to show that the stress, σ , equals the external force, P , divided by the cross-sectional area, A . P

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Recall from Statics that a positive force acts in the positive direction with respect to a coordinate axis. x y Sign convention for stress using bars as examples A positive stress is due to tension and elongation due to applied forces. A negative stress is due to compression and shortening due to applied forces. P P P P P
Stress Concepts – Normal Stress, Shear Stress, General State of Stress External forces acting on an object cause a distribution of forces in the object.

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