Lecture_2_-_Basic_Units_of_Inheritance-1

Lecture_2_-_Basic_Units_of_Inheritance-1 - Lecture 2...

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Lecture 2 Lecture 2 Basic Units of Basic Units of Inheritance Inheritance
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Basic Units of Inheritance Basic Units of Inheritance Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is a large, complex molecle that makes up the genetic material of all living organisms DNA normally exists in cells in a long thread-like structure called chromatin During cell division chromatin thickens and condenses into visible chromosomes
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Basic Units of Inheritance Basic Units of Inheritance DNA is copied into a similar molecule known as Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) through a process known as transcription RNA travels from the cell nucleus to the ribosomes in the cell cytoplasm where it is used to produce proteins in a process known as translation Proteins are used as cellular building blocks and to control most cellular functions
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Structure of DNA Structure of DNA DNA consists of a long chain of molecules called nucleic acids or nucleotides joined together in a long linear chain Nucleotides consists of 3 compounds: A nitrogen containing base compound A 5 carbon sugar called a pentose sugar A phosphate molecule
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Structure of DNA Structure of DNA There are 5 basic nucleotides Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine Uracil
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Structure of DNA Structure of DNA DNA consists of two polynucleotide chains joined together by weak hydrogen bonds between complimentary nucleotides on each chain. Adenine on one chain forms two hydrogen bonds with thymine on the opposite chain and cytosine on one chain forms three hydrogen bonds with guanine on the other chain.
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Chromosome Structures Chromosome Structures Chromatin is a long thread-like structure which is dispersed throughout the cell nucleus and is not visible through most of the cell’s life Chromatin is made up of a complex of DNA and protein molecules During cell division chromatin condenses into visible chromosomes All cells in an individual plant or animal have the same number of chromosomes All individuals of the same species have the same number of chromosomes
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Chromosome Structures Chromosome Structures Chromosomes have 2 distinct features: Centromere - a condensed or constricted area occurring in a specific location on a chromosome Chromosomes can be classified by the position of their centromere Length – the same chromosome in 2 cells in an individual are the same length
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This note was uploaded on 05/07/2011 for the course DARY 2072 taught by Professor Hay during the Spring '09 term at LSU.

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Lecture_2_-_Basic_Units_of_Inheritance-1 - Lecture 2...

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