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Lecture_3_-_Cell_Division_and_the_Cell_Cycle-1

Lecture_3_-_Cell_Division_and_the_Cell_Cycle-1 - Lecture 3...

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Lecture 3 Lecture 3 Cell Division and the Cell Division and the Cell Cycle Cell Cycle
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Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotic Organisms are species that do not have a distinct cellular nucleus Prokaryotes are bacteria, viruses, some protozoans and some plant species Eukaryotic Organisms are species that DO have a distinct cellular nucleus Eukaryotes are species such as higher plants and animals
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The Cell Cycle The Cell Cycle Most cells undergo continuous alterations between cellular division and non-division The Cell Cycle is the series of events that occur from the completion of one cell division to the completion of the next cell division This makes up the life cycle of the cell
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The Cell Cycle The Cell Cycle The Cell Cycle is made up of two distinct parts: Interphase and Cell Division The Cell Cycle can be divided into four distinct phases: Gap1 or G1 , S , Gap2 or G2 and M . Interphase consists of the G1 , S and G2 phases Cell Division occurs in the M phase DNA replication occurs during the S phase of Interphase
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The Cell Cycle The Cell Cycle The beginning of the G1 phase is the start of the cell cycle Intense metabolic activity, cell growth and differentiation of intracellular organelles occurs during the G1 , S , and G2 phases By the end of G2 the cell has roughly doubled in size Human cells take about 16 hours to complete 1 cell cycle
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The Cell Cycle The Cell Cycle Late in the G1 phase some cells can either enter the S phase or become quiescent and never begin cell growth or DNA replication This is called the G0 phase. Some cells never enter G0, some cells only remain in G0 a short time, some cells stay in G0 a long time and some cells never re-enter S and eventually die
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The Cell Cycle The Cell Cycle Some cells that enter G0 remain viable and metabolically active but are not undergoing cell growth or DNA replication Some cells never enter G0 or pass thru it very quickly
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Cell Cycle Control Cell Cycle Control The Cell Cycle is fundamentally the same in all eukaryotic cells The similarity of events leading to cell duplication in different species suggests the cell cycle is governed by genetic information that has been conserved by evolution This means the cell cycle is genetically controlled
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Cell Cycle Control Cell Cycle Control Disruption of this genetic control or regulation can lead to uncontrolled cell division and growth characterized by malignancies Knowledge of how genes control the cell cycle is a very important field of study
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Genetic Mutations Genetic Mutations Changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA are called mutations Mutations can occur naturally or spontaneously or can be caused by outside influences
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