Lecture_4_-_Mendelian_Genetics-1

Lecture_4_-_Mendelian_Genetics-1 - Lecture 4 Lecture...

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Lecture 4 Lecture 4 Mendelian Genetics Mendelian Genetics
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Mendelian Genetics Mendelian Genetics In the mid 1800’s several scientists and naturalists postulated how traits or physical characteristics were passed from one generation to the next and how genetic material or ‘genes’ that determined these traits were passed from one generation to the next. Gregor Johann Mendel was an Augustinian pastor and naturalist Mendel was not the 1st to attempt to provide scientific evidence of inheritance However, Mendel was the 1st to successfully provide clearly understandable, conclusive proof of such events.
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Mendelian Genetics Mendelian Genetics Mendel showed remarkable insight into the methodology of scientific experimentation: (1) Formulate a hypothesis (2) Experiment and collect data (3) Interpret the data (4) Prove or disprove the hypothesis based on the results of the data. Keep in mind that at this time there were no clearly defined procedures or methodology as we know them today for scientific experimentation. Also keep in mind Mendel had no knowledge of cellular biology, cell division or DNA. His success in describing several basic ‘postulates’ of inheritance were the result of remarkably brilliant experimental methodology and remarkable good fortune in the species and traits he studied.
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Mendelian Genetics Mendelian Genetics Mendel chose an organism that was ideally suited for his experiments. The common garden pea, Pisum sativum , was readily available from local merchants in true breeding strains or varieties. Pisum sativum is self-fertilizing in nature, therefore true breeding strains or varieties of the plant are readily available. Pisum sativum is relatively easy to grow, and relatively easy to artificially hybridize or cross-breed. Pisum sativum reproduces well (produces lots of offspring) and grows to sexual maturity in a relatively short period of time (one growing season).
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Mendelian Genetics Mendelian Genetics Mendel chose traits that were simple to measure by visual observation and contained relatively few different or contrasting forms. Mendel chose 7 traits to work with and each of these traits had only two major forms: (1) Stem height – tall or dwarf (2) Seed shape – round or wrinkled (3) Seed color – green or yellow (4) Pod shape – full or constricted (5) Pod color – green or yellow (6) Pod placement – axial or terminal (7) Flower color – violet or white. He was also extremely lucky in that all the traits he chose to study were inherited independently of each other; inheritance of one trait was not linked to the inheritance of another.
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Mendel’s Experiments Mendel’s Experiments Mendel purchased seeds from different true breeding strains for one trait from local merchants. For example, he purchased seeds from Tall plants and seeds from Dwarf plants.
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