lecture 4

lecture 4 - Chapter 26 Microbial Diseases Skin and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 26 Microbial Diseases Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections Staphylococcus aureus Boils/ pimples walled off from body with fibrin Impetigo- skin infection Scalded skin syndrome- due to exfoliate toxin Can produce hemolysins, superantigen enterot oxin A (food poisoning), c oagulase, leukocidin, superantigen TSST (toxic shock syndrome) Can also cause pneumonia and meningitis Treatment with penicillins MRSA methicillin-resistant S. aureus Horizontal transfer of drug-resistant genes Evolved in environment with high levels of antibiotic Hospitals nosocomial infections Resistant to all drugs except vancomycin Streptococcus pyogenes 60+ strains strep throat ( pharyngitis) 5-10% of sore throats diagnosis- blood agar: slow; antibody test: rapid infections of the inner ear impetigo- skin infection Scarlet fever exot oxin superantigen; can follow pharyngitis; pink rash and strawberry tongue Rheumatic fever autoimmune; antibodies against S. pyogenes react with host tissue damages heart valves necrotizing fasciitis (flesh eating) Many viruses can cause skin rashes Usually infect through respiratory tract Chickenpox caused by Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a herpesvirus VZV can lay dormant in nerve cells for long periods of time. Shingles is caused by the migration of VZV to the skin; painful blisters Measles/ rubeola caused by a paramyxovirus Symptoms- fever, cough, rash Mumps- inflammation of salivary glands Rubella/German measles Caused by a togavirus symptoms - similar to measles but milder Can be prevented with MMR vaccine Many fungal skin infections Respiratory Tract Infections Most respiratory pathogens are transferred from person to person via respiratory aerosols coughing, sneezing, talking, breathing Transmission usually occurs over short distances because microorganisms survive poorly in air Pathogens that can survive dry conditions such as many Gram positive and mycobacteria are easier to transmit by air Streptococcus pneumoniae- l ower respiratory diseases; can also cause meningitis Pneumococcal pneumonia I nflammatory reaction in alveoli Usually a secondary infection (after you have been sick with something else) Capsule protects organism from phagocytosis untreated- 30% mortality rate Alveoli become filled with blood , bacteria, and phagocytic cells Symptoms = sudden onset of chills, labored breathing, pleural (chest) pain Pneumonia can also be caused by viruses, other bacteria, or fungi S. pneumoniae is found in respiratory flora in about 40% of healthy people Corynebacterium diphtheriae Childhood upper respiratory infection , diphtheria....
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lecture 4 - Chapter 26 Microbial Diseases Skin and...

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