BIOL 2051_Ch.4

BIOL 2051_Ch.4 - Chapter 4 Bacterial Culture, Growth, and...

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Chapter 4 Bacterial Culture, Growth, and Development Microbial Nutrition All life requires: Electron flow, to drive all life processes Drives ions into, out of cells Used to create ATP (charge differential used) Energy, to move electrons Materials, to make cell parts Nutrients needed in largest amounts- CHONPS Electron flow requires: Source of electrons Lithotrophs- Inorganic molecules are electron donors (iron) Organotrophs- Organic molecules are electron donors (glucose) Ultimate electron acceptor Inorgaic molecules (nitrate or oxygen) This process is respiration (use of inorganic molecules) Organic molecules (pyruvate) This process is called fermentation Source of energy Phototrophs Light energy excites electrons Excited molecules are electron donors Chemotrophs Chemicals are electron donors Oxidation of chemical o Oxidation = donation of electrons
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Nutrients Macronutrients Major elements in cell macromolecules o C,H,O,N,P,S Ions necessary for protein fuction o Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Fe 2+ , K + Micronutrients Trace elements (Co, Cu, Zn, etc) and growth factors (organic compounds) necessary for enzyme function Carbon- large amount needed by cells to form organic compounds (amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, & nitrogenase bases) to carry out cellular functions. Autotrophs- prokaryotes that can make all cellular structures from CO 2 Heterotrophs- must obtain carbon from organic compounds. (most prokaryotes) Nitrogen- needed by cells for amino acids, nitrogen bases, & other cell constituents. Nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes- capable of using atmospheric nitrogen gas Most prokaryotes obtain nitrogen from compounds such as ammonia and nitrate Energy sources: Chemoorganotrophs-energy from oxidation (removing electrons) of organic compounds Chemolithotrophs– energy from oxidation of inorganic compounds. Only in prokaryotes. Advantage? (less competition) Phototrophs- contain pigments that allow them to use light as an energy source. Advantage? (less competition; plenty of sunlight) Carbon sources: Heterotrophs- carbon source is organic compounds Autotrophs - carbon source is carbon dioxide Example- photoautotroph obtains energy from light & carbon from carbon dioxide.
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Nutrient Uptake Passive diffusion Some substances pass freely through membranes o O 2 , CO 2 Follows gradient of material Facilitated diffusion Transporters pass material into/out of cell
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BIOL 2051_Ch.4 - Chapter 4 Bacterial Culture, Growth, and...

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