BIOL2051_Ch.1

BIOL2051_Ch.1 - Chapter 1: Microbial Life: Origin and...

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Chapter 1: Microbial Life: Origin and Discovery What Is a Microbe? 6 major groups studied by microbiologists Prokaryotes 1. Bacteria 2. Archeae Eukaryotes 1. Algae 2. Protozoa 3. Fungi Viruses Microbes Shape Human History Microbes affect food availability Destroy crops, but preserve food Microbial diseases change history Black Plague in Europe Smallpox in America More soldiers have died from infections than battle wounds TB HIV Discovery of Microbes Light microscope invented in the 1600s Mid-1600s: Robert Hooke observes small eukaryotes First person to use the term “cells” Antoni van Leeuwenhoek -1676 Built simple microscopes Described “wee animacules” Published first drawings of bacteria (prokaryotes) Microbes Are Living Organisms
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Microbes arise only from other microbes No spontaneous generation 1861: Pasteur shows that microbes do not grow in liquid until introduced from outside Spontaneous generation -idea that living organisms arise from non-living matter He disproved this using broth in swan-necked flasks (Pasteur flasks) Sterilized broth by boiling, bent necks of flasks so that air could enter, but microbes would be caught in the neck Led to development of methods for controlling growth of microorganisms Pasteurization – use of moderate heat to reduce the number of microorganisms in food (i.e., Milk, Wine, and Oysters) “Germ theory of disease”- they began thinking that microorganisms may also be causing diseases Vaccines for anthrax, fowl cholera, and rabies resulted Germ Theory of Disease Observations: Germs can infect and grow on food Hypothesis: Can germs infect and grow on people? That is, do germs cause disease? Hypothesis is testable:
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Are germs found in infected tissue? Can transmission of germs cause disease?
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This note was uploaded on 05/07/2011 for the course BIOL 2153 taught by Professor Larkin during the Spring '03 term at LSU.

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BIOL2051_Ch.1 - Chapter 1: Microbial Life: Origin and...

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