Ch._26 - Ch. 26 Tuesday, December 02, 2008 9:57 AM Ch. 26 -...

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Ch. 26 Tuesday, December 02, 2008 9:57 AM Ch. 26 - Microbial Diseases o Skin Infections Staphylococcus aureus Boils/pimples - walled off from body with fibrin clot Impetigo - skin infection "Scalded skin" syndrome - due to exfoliative toxin Can produce hemolysins, superantigen enterotoxin A (food poisoning), coagulase, leukocidin, superantigen TSST (toxic shock syndrome) Can also cause pneumonia and meningitis Treatment with penicillins MRSA - methicillin-resistant S. aureus Horizontal transfer of drug-resistance genes Evolved in environment with high levels of antibiotics Hospitals - nosocomial infections Resistance to all drugs except vancomycin Streptococcus pyogenes 60+ strains Strep throat (pharyngitis): 5-10% of sore throats Diagnosis blood agar: slow (for beta hemolysis) Antibody test: rapid Infections of the inner ear Impetigo - skin infections Scarlet fever - exotoxin superantigen; can follow pahryngitis Rheumatic fever - autoimmune; antibodies against S. pyrogenes react with host tissue - damages heart valves Necrotizing fasciitis ("flesh eating") Many viruses can cause skin rashes Usually infect through respiratory tract Chickenpox Caused be Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a herpesvirus VZV can lay dormant in nerve cells for long period of time. Shingles is caused by the migration of VZV to the skin; painful blisters. Measles/rubeola Caused by a paramyxovirus Symptoms - fever, cough, rash Mumps - inflammation of salivary glands Rubella/German measles Caused by a togavirus Symptoms - similar to measles but milder Can be prevented with MMR vaccine Many fungal skin infections o Respiratory Tract Infections Most respiratory pathogens are transferred from person to person via repiratory aerosols - coughing, sneezing, talking, breathing Transmission usually occurs over shot distances because microorganisms survive poorly in air Streptococcus pneumoniae - lower respiratory diseases, can also cause meningitis Pneumococcal pneumonia
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Inflammatory reaction in alveoli Usually a secondary infection (get after another initial illness) Capsule protects organism from phagocytosis Untreated - 30% mortality rate Symptoms = sudden onset of chills, labored breathing, pleural (chest) pain Pneumonia can also be caused by viruses, other bacteria, or fung S. pneumonia is found in respiratory flora in about 40% of healthy people Corynebacterium diphtheriae Childhood upper respiratory infection, diphtheria Pathogenic strains of C. diphtheriae produce exotoxin that inhibit protein synthesis
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Ch._26 - Ch. 26 Tuesday, December 02, 2008 9:57 AM Ch. 26 -...

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