chapters_13_and_14_outline_1_spr09

chapters_13_and_14_outline_1_spr09 - Chapter 13 Energetics...

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Chapter 14 Sun is ultimate energy source Photosynthesis Captures light, stores as chemical energy These organisms usually are pigmented Heterotrophy Uses captured chemical energy (substances that already exist) Builds other chemicals Waste Each step gives off heat energy Metabolism Catabolism breaking down molecules for energy Anabolism Using energy to build cell components Metabolism Balance between catabolism and anabolism Central biochemical pathways used for both TCA cycle (citric acid cycle) , glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt You don’t really need to memorize the diagram below and all the words in it, it’s an overview to help you understand the processes.
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Electron Transfer Major source of cell energy Passage of electrons from one substance to another releases energy Requires electron donor, electron acceptor Electron transport found in all cells Different donors, acceptors (for a lot of organisms the simplest electron donor is glucose) Electron energy can be stored for either short or long term use (short: GTP &ATP, long: glycogen, etc.) Phosphorylation Energy- see Fig 13.6a No electron donor or acceptor needed Phosphate group added via dehydration Released via hydrolysis
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ATP most common (sometimes GTP) Metabolism Sunlight Reduced geological compounds (rocks, inorganic compounds) (Reduced) biological macromolecules (starch, fats) (First energy source) (Major energy source today) (Energy source for animals) Energy CATABOLISM Phototrophy Lithotrophy Organotrophy ATP Short-term energystorage ANABOLISM Carbon, nitrogen, water Long-term energy storage Biosynthesis Catalysis and Enzymes Activation energy- energy required to bring all molecules in a chemical reaction into the reactive state. (breaks bonds) Enzymes - Catalytic proteins; speed up biochemical reaction rates by lowering activation energy. Active site - portion of an enzyme to which substrate binds. Enzyme Substrate ------------------ product(s) (need to know the substrate, enzyme, and product of reaction) aldolase enzyme: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate + dihydroxyacetone phosphate Very specific for their substrate
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Cellulose vs. starch example (made of glucose, but have different types of bonds that hold glucose together) Enzymes can have small non-protein molecules that help in catalysis but aren’t part of the enzyme or the substrate. (the enzymes themselves are proteins) (the non-protein molecules are bound to them) Two types: 1. Prosthetic groups- bound tightly to their enzyme, usually covalently and permanently. Example- heme group in cytochromes
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This note was uploaded on 05/07/2011 for the course BIOL 2153 taught by Professor Larkin during the Spring '03 term at LSU.

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chapters_13_and_14_outline_1_spr09 - Chapter 13 Energetics...

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