CE 11 – Midterm 1 Study
Sustainable Development – Development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Sustainability – The ability to maintain a certain process or state. (Includes social, economic, and
The U.S. has the highest energy use per capita, followed by North America, Eurasia, Europe,
2/3 of the growth in energy demand is expected to occur in the developing world, where economic
and population growth is the highest.
Business drivers: Corporate sustainability reporting is becoming the norm, a growing market for
"green" products and services, avoidance of remediation costs (providing a remedy), eco-labels
(Energy Star, LEED), and increased public scrutiny (avoid bad image).
Regulatory drivers: U.S. Clean Air Act, U.S. Clean Water Act, U.S. Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (safe disposal of solid and hazardous waste), U.S. Toxics Release Inventory,
Emerging Extended Producer Responsibility, Kyoto Protocol, and U.S. state initiatives.
Short-term view: Compliance and remediation. Long-term view: Life-cycle view of products,
processes, and services, pollution prevention and regulation prediction.
General Environmental Problems: Environmental discharges to air, water, land, and underground
wells, waste generation and disposal, depletion of materials and energy, human health effects
(acute, chronic, and carcinogenic), effects on flora and fauna.
Specific Environmental Problems: Nonrenewable and renewable resource use, toxic chemical
emissions, energy use and GHG emissions, criteria pollutants (6), ozone-depleting chemical use
and emissions, solid and nonsolid waste generation/treatment, water use and pollution.
HO#3: Population Growth
Annual Growth Rate : same as compound growth/compound annual interest equation
Exponential Growth: A small uncertainty leads to large differences, but yields similar results to
Annual GRM for low rates and short periods. P = P
; dP/dt = rP.
Logistic Growth: P = P
= carrying capacity, t
= time needed to reach half of
, r = initial exp.l growth rate; dP/dt = rP(1-P/P
= t + ln[P
Describes human and animal populations well. Better for long periods.
Demographic Models: Growth Rate = Birth Rate – Death rate + Immigration rate. Usually shows
age distribution of a population. Fertility rate of women: 2.1. More refined for special cases.