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1 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY CE11 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABILITY, SPRING 2009 H OMEWORK 5: A IR E MISSIONS DUE F RIDAY , M ARCH 6, 2009 (T OTAL : 100 POINTS ) *****SOLUTIONS***** 1. Acid Rain (30 points) The US EPA Acid Rain program has been very successful at reducing emissions of SO 2 and NO x . To answer the questions below, you will need to browse the 1999 progress report: http://www.epa.gov/airmarkets/progress/docs/1999report.pdf a. Explain the difference between “dry” and “wet” deposition (refer to Figure 1). (5 points) Dry deposition refers to the direct deposit of pollutants from their gaseous state to the ground or from their suspended particle state to the ground. Wet deposition refers to the deposit of pollutants to the ground that have been absorbed into cloud droplets or precipitation. b. In most states the emissions of SO 2 decreased significantly from 1980 to 1997, but in one state the emissions increased significantly. Which state is it? (refer to Figure 5). (5 points) Texas c. What was the reduction in deposition of sulfate that occurred after the Acid Rain Program was implemented in 1995? (refer to Figure 9) (5 points) Figure 9 notes up to a 25% reduction over a large portion on the Eastern US. d. Explain in 1-2 sentences what ANC is. (refer to p.13) (5 points) Acid neutralizing capacity, or ANC, is a measure of dissolved compounds in a water sample that counteract acidity. This measure is important in determining surface waters’ ability to neutralize acid deposition. e. Visibility in the Eastern US has improved dramatically since the Acid Rain Program was implemented. What was the average increase in visibility during the summer in Eastern National Parks from 1993/4 to 1995? (refer to Figure 17) (5 points)
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