HW6_Solutions

HW6_Solutions - DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL...

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1 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY CE11 ENGINEERED SYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABILITY, SPRING 2009 H OMEWORK 6: W ATER R ESOURCES , P OLLUTION AND LCA DUE F RIDAY , A PRIL 3, 2009 (T OTAL : 100 POINTS ) SOLUTIONS 1. Water Pollution (6 points) The main types of pollution that impair lakes and rivers are typically reported by the EPA, such as in the report for year 2002. A summary is available at http://www.epa.gov/305b/2002report/factsheet2002305b.pdf. What were the top three causes and top three sources of impairments in U.S. rivers, lakes, and estuaries in 2002? (6 points) Rivers and Streams Lakes, Ponds, and Reservoirs Estuaries Sediments/siltation Nutrients Metals Pathogens Metals Nutrients Causes Habitat alterations Organic enrichment Organic enrichment Agriculture Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified Unknown/unspecified Agriculture Industrial discharges Sources Hydrologic modifications Atmospheric deposition Municipal discharges 2. “Water Wars” in California (40 points) Several articles have appeared in the S.F. Chronicle about water issues in California. Read the two articles below and answer the following questions. To access the articles online, go to sfgate.com and search for the titles. “The California Water Wars – Water Flowing to Farms, not Fish” (Sunday, October 23, 2005). Make sure to click on “more” to see the map that goes with the article . “Toxic Runoff Disposal Could Imperil Water” (Tuesday, November 1, 2005) a. How much does the Westlands water district pay for its water? How much do cities typically pay? (4 points) Westlands - $31 per acre-foot. Cities - between $200-$500 per acre-foot. b. Where does the water come from that the Westlands farmers receive? (4 points) Westland farmers receive water from the federal California Valley Project (“CVP”). The CVP water comes via canals from the San Luis Reservoir, which comes from the Delta. Water from the delta originates from north state reservoirs (Shasta Lake on the upper Sacramento River and Trinity Lake on the Trinity River) and flows to the delta down the Sacramento River. c. Why are environmentalists concerned about the new Westlands water contract (to buy water from Central Valley Project)? (4 points) The new Westlands contract will give more water from “Delta’s communal water pot” to Westlands, leaving less water available for fisheries on the Sacramento River. d. What measures have the farmers in the Westlands district taken to conserve water and reduce pollution? (4 points) 1) Computers meticulously control water and fertilizer output through drip irrigation lines for thousands of acres. 2) Satellite images of fields are regularly consulted to precisely determine problem areas, resulting in the spot application of pesticides rather than landscape-scale spraying. 3) Irrigation drain water is collected in tiles and recycled to the fields. e.
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HW6_Solutions - DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL...

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