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CE 11 Study Guide 2

CE 11 Study Guide 2 - CE 11 Midterm 2 Review HO#13-15 Air...

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CE 11 Midterm 2 Review HO #13-15: Air Pollution Primary pollutants: Emitted directly to the atmosphere by combustion (power plants burning fossil fuels), evaporation (gasoline, paint), and grinding/abrasion (asbestos, dust) Secondary pollutants: Created by chemical reaction in atmosphere (e.g. ozone) Combustion is never 100% efficient, so other compounds are formed and released. U.S. Clean Air Act: 6 criteria pollutants (CO, NO 2 , O 3 , SO 2 , Pb, PM). Also identifies 189 other hazardous air pollutants (e.g. benzene). National Ambient Air Quality Standards: apply to outdoor air; primary standards are to protect public health, esp. most sensitive populations. Secondary standards are to protect public "welfare" (buildings, crops, visibility, domestic animals). PM (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ): particulate matter is aerosol, dust, smoke, soot found in the air. The smaller it is, the worse it is for chronic health. Cause of respiratory infections, cardiac disorders, and asthma. The subscript number indicates the avg. diameter in micrometers. SO 2 : Found in coal and petroleum (diesel), which are used for electricity generation and metal processing. It oxidizes in the air: SO 2 barb2right S0 3 barb2right H 2 SO 4 barb2right acid rain and secondary PM. Acid rain "washes" tree trunks and plants, acidifies lakes with no buffer capacity (threatens aquatic life), degrades buildings (fiscal impact). A decreasing problem in North America due to the success of the cap-and-trade program over the past decade. An increasing problem in industrializing countries, such as China. Reduction in the industry is less elastic than in electricity generation. NO X : Includes NO and NO 2 and released as heat from combustion of fossil fuels (+transportation). It oxidizes with the air: NO barb2right NO 2 barb2right HNO 3 barb2right acid rain and secondary PM. Health and environmental effects include: a major smog precursor, visibility impairment, creates nitrates ( barb2right PM), and acid deposition. CO: Comes from combustion of transport fuels and incomplete, fuel-rich combustion. Health and environmental effects include: asphyxiation, smog precursor, central nervous system effects, affects people with heart conditions. O3: Good in the stratosphere (block UV rays), bad in the troposphere (for our health). A product of photochemical smog: VOC + NOx + sunlight + O2 = O3. Health and environmental effects: Inflammation of mucus membranes, asthma, reduced respiratory capacity, reduces ability of plants to produce and store food. Formation NOT linear with concentration. Pb: Sources include industry and transportation. Potent neurotoxin (in plastics and paint) – impedes brain development. Transportation used to be the main source, but now lead is significantly reduced in gasoline – big environmental achievement.
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