Chapter 21 and 22 for lecturesp 2011-S notes for d2l

Chapter 21 and 22 for lecturesp 2011-S notes for d2l -...

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Unformatted text preview: Click to edit Master subtitle style 5/8/11 Chapter 21 and 22 Assessment and Management of Patients With Eye and Vision Disorders 5/8/11 5/8/11 Structures of the Eye External 5/8/11 Extraocular Muscles Cross- section Interior of the Eye Lens 5/8/11 Ocular History Visual acuity ◦ Snellen chart § Record each eye § 20/20 means the patient can read the “20” line at a distance of 20 feet Finger count or hand motion 5/8/11 Visual Acuity External Eye Examination Direct and Indirect Ophthalmoscopy Slit-Lamp Examination Color vision testing Amsler grid Tonometry Ultrasonography Color Fundus Photography Fluorescein Angiography Assessment 5/8/11 Visual Acuity External Eye Examination Position of eyelid ◦ Ptosis ◦ Lid retraction Sclera and conjunctiva PERRLA Gaze ◦ Nystagmus ◦ EOM (Six Cardinal Fields of Gaze) 5/8/11 Ophthalmoscope: Fundal examination 5/8/11 Slit Lamp 5/8/11 Color Vision Amsler Grid Often used for patients with macular problems 5/8/11 Tonometry Measures the pressure in the eye (IOP) 5/8/11 Refractometry ◦ To correct refractory errors Ultrasonography ◦ Orbital tumors, retinal detachment Fluorescein Angiography ◦ Dye injected into a vein to evaluate retinal vasculature Assessment (cont) 5/8/11 Myopia – near sighted ◦ Refractive error, image focuses in front of the retina Hyperopia – far sighted ◦ Refractive error, image focuses behind the retina Astigmatism ◦ Irregular curve of the cornea Low vision and Blindness ◦ magnification and image enhancement Impaired vision 5/8/11 Eyeball Shape Determines Visual 5/8/11 5/8/11 Normal outflow of aqueous humor In glaucoma, aqueous production and drainage are not in balance When aqueous outflow is blocked, pressure builds up in the eye Increased IOP causes irreversible Pathophysiology of Glaucoma 5/8/11 Primary open-angle glaucoma ◦ Chronic open-angle glaucoma ◦ Normal-tension glaucoma ◦ Ocular hypertension Primary angle-closure (pupillary block) glaucoma ◦ Acute angle-closure ◦ Subacute angle-closure ◦ Chronic angle-closure Congenital glaucomas and glaucoma secondary to 5/8/11 Called the “silent thief,” glaucoma renders the patient unaware of the condition until there is significant vision loss, including peripheral vision loss, blurring, halos, difficulty focusing, and difficulty adjusting eyes to low lighting Patient may also experience aching or discomfort around the eyes or a headache 5/8/11 5/8/11 Tonometry to assess IOP Gonioscopy to assess the angle of the anterior chamber Perimetry to Progression of visual field defects 5/8/11...
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This note was uploaded on 05/08/2011 for the course NURSING 318 taught by Professor Turner during the Spring '11 term at Southwestern Adventist.

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Chapter 21 and 22 for lecturesp 2011-S notes for d2l -...

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