CHAPTER 23 - Biology: Concepts and Connections, 6e...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology: Concepts and Connections, 6e (Campbell) Chapter 23 Circulation Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which of the following statements regarding circulation is true? A) Muscle contraction tends to pull blood downward into the lower parts of the body of a terrestrial vertebrate. B) A standing giraffe requires a great deal more pressure to pump blood to its head than an animal with a shorter neck. C) Valves in veins and muscle contractions pressing against veins slow down the return of blood to the heart. D) When a corn snake climbs up a tree, its heart beats slower but with greater force. E) Gravity significantly affects blood moving through the circulatory system. Answer: B Topic: Opening Essay Skill: Conceptual Understanding 2) Which of the following statements regarding circulatory systems is true? A) The smallest blood vessels in the body are veins. B) A circulatory system is necessary in any animal whose body is too large or too complex for vital chemicals to reach all parts of the body by diffusion. C) Red blood cells are too large to pass single file through capillaries. D) Materials are exchanged directly between the blood and body cells. E) The circulatory system transports gases and nutrients, but the lymphatic system transports metabolic wastes. Answer: B Topic: 23.1 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 3) Which of the following is a function of the circulatory system? A) maintaining an optimal red blood cell count B) transporting nerve impulses throughout the body C) governing nutrient concentration in the blood D) transporting nutrients to body cells E) mounting a response to invading microorganisms Answer: D Topic: 23.1 Skill: Factual Recall 4) The two basic types of circulatory systems that have evolved over time are A) flat and circular. B) open and closed. C) transverse and repetitive. 1 D) horizontal and vertical. E) single and double. Answer: B Topic: 23.1 Skill: Factual Recall 5) Which of the following is characteristic of the circulatory system of arthropods? A) lack of a heart B) lack of blood C) lack of blood vessels. D) blood flowing out of the body E) lack of distinction between blood and interstitial fluid Answer: E Topic: 23.1 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 6) Adaptation to terrestrial life required major evolutionary changes, not just in the respiratory system, but also in the A) reproductive system. B) cardiovascular system. C) manufacture of blood cells. D) maintenance of body temperature. E) association of blood and interstitial fluid. Answer: B Topic: 23.2-Evolution Connection Skill: Conceptual Understanding 7) Which of the following animals has a single circuit of blood flow and two heart chambers? A) salamander B) salmon C) snake D) swan E) squirrel Answer: B Topic: 23.2-Evolution Connection Skill: Factual Recall 8) Which of the following animals has a three-chambered heart? A) snake B) crocodile C) human D) cow E) bird Answer: A Topic: 23.2-Evolution Connection 2 Skill: Factual Recall 9) Which of the following is a likely advantage of a three-chambered heart? A) greater separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood B) greater blood pressure C) the ability to divert deoxygenated blood away from the lungs when diving underwater D) the ability to generate more body heat than a mammal E) greater mixing of blood in the ventricle Answer: C Topic: 23.2-Evolution Connection Skill: Conceptual Understanding 10) Although birds and mammals descended from different ancestors, they both have a four-chambered heart. This is the result of A) the simplification of the cardiovascular system. B) the necessity for rapid movement of blood. C) the importance of entirely filling the chest cavity. D) nature selecting adaptations of two unrelated individuals in response to similar environmental challenges. E) genetic aberrations that resulted from mistakes in somatic cell division. Answer: D Topic: 23.2-Evolution Connection Skill: Conceptual Understanding 11) Which of the following statements about mammalian circulatory systems is false? A) The pulmonary circuit carries blood between the heart and the lungs. B) The systemic circuit carries blood between the heart and the rest of the body. C) Mammals have two atria and two ventricles in their hearts. D) A mammal uses about ten times as much oxygen as a lizard of the same size. E) The left side of a mammalʹs heart sends blood to the lungs. Answer: E Topic: 23.3 Skill: Factual Recall 12) In mammals, blood returning from the head will pass through the ________ just before entering the right atrium. A) right ventricle B) left atrium C) superior vena cava D) inferior vena cava E) aorta Answer: C Topic: 23.3 Skill: Factual Recall 3 13) In mammals, which of the following vessels transports oxygenated blood from the lung back to the heart? A) pulmonary artery B) pulmonary vein C) aorta D) vena cava E) coronary artery Answer: B Topic: 23.3 Skill: Factual Recall 14) Oxygen-poor blood is carried from the heart of a mammal to the lungs via the A) pulmonary arteries. B) pulmonary veins. C) venae cavae. D) aorta. E) coronary veins. Answer: A Topic: 23.3 Skill: Factual Recall 15) Blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs by the A) pulmonary artery. B) left atrium. C) right atrium. D) left ventricle. E) right ventricle. Answer: E Topic: 23.3 Skill: Factual Recall 16) From the left ventricle, oxygen-rich blood flows through the A) superior vena cava. B) inferior vena cava. C) aorta. D) pulmonary artery. E) pulmonary vein. Answer: C Topic: 23.3 Skill: Factual Recall 17) The largest blood vessel in the human body is the A) superior vena cava. B) vena cava. C) arteria maxima. D) aorta. 4 E) pulmonary artery. Answer: D Topic: 23.3 Skill: Factual Recall 18) During which phase of the heartbeat does the heart fill with blood? A) interphase B) resting phase C) diastole D) atrial phase E) systole Answer: C Topic: 23.4 Skill: Factual Recall 19) Cardiac output is defined as the volume of blood pumped by a(n) ________ each time it contracts. A) heart B) atrium C) aorta D) atrioventricular valve E) ventricle Answer: E Topic: 23.4 Skill: Factual Recall 20) During ventricular systole, the ________ valves ________. A) AV . . . open B) semilunar . . . close C) AV . . . close D) semilunar . . . open E) AV and semilunar . . . close Answer: D Topic: 23.4 Skill: Factual Recall 21) Heart rate is least influenced by A) emotional cues. B) hormones. C) exercise. D) a pacemaker in the right atrium. E) the number of cells per unit of blood. Answer: E Topic: 23.4 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 5 22) Using a stethoscope, you listen to a beating heart and hear ʺlub-dup, lub-dup.ʺ These sounds are created by A) muscles in the left ventricle. B) blood flowing through the aorta. C) muscles in the right atrium. D) blood pressure differentials from chamber to chamber. E) valves in the heart closing. Answer: E Topic: 23.4 Skill: Factual Recall 23) The location of the heartʹs pacemaker is a specialized region of cardiac muscle called the A) atrioventricular node. B) sinoatrial node. C) Purkinje fibers. D) heart center of the brain. E) aorta. Answer: B Topic: 23.5 Skill: Factual Recall 24) The main function of the AV node is to A) initiate the heartbeat. B) set the rhythm of the heartbeat. C) relay the signal for the heart to contract from the right ventricle to the right atrium. D) relay the signal for the heart to contract from the right heart to the left heart. E) relay a signal for the ventricles to contract. Answer: E Topic: 23.5 Skill: Factual Recall 25) Myocardial infarction, also called a heart attack, A) is caused by excessive blood pressure in the heart. B) actually causes no permanent damage to the heart. C) is the result of angina pectoris. D) is unrelated to cigarette smoking. E) results from the death of cardiac muscle cells. Answer: E Topic: 23.6 Skill: Factual Recall 26) Which of the following is the cause of 40% of all deaths in the United States? A) cardiovascular disease B) HIV C) flu D) cancer 6 E) diabetes Answer: A Topic: 23.6 Skill: Factual Recall 27) Arteries are distinguished from veins based on all of the following features except A) the direction of blood flow relative to the heart. B) the structure of their walls. C) the amount of oxygen present in the blood. D) the blood pressure. E) the number of red blood cells. Answer: C Topic: 23.7 Skill: Factual Recall 28) Which blood vessels have the thinnest walls? A) arteries B) arterioles C) veins D) venules E) capillaries Answer: E Topic: 23.7 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 29) In humans, which blood vessels have valves? A) arteries in the neck B) arterioles C) capillaries D) venules E) veins Answer: E Topic: 23.7 Skill: Factual Recall 30) As blood moves away from the heart, the relative size and number of blood vessels ________, the blood pressure ________, and the velocity of blood flow ________. A) decreases . . . drops. . . slows B) decreases. . . increases . . . increases C) decreases. . . drops . . . increases D) increases. . . increases. . . increases E) increases. . . drops . . . slows Answer: A Topic: 23.8 7 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 31) In which of the following human blood vessels is the blood pressure lowest? A) arteries in the head B) arterioles in the legs C) capillaries in the feet D) the aorta E) veins in the head Answer: E Topic: 23.8 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 32) Which kind of vessel has the lowest blood velocity? A) artery B) arteriole C) capillary D) venule E) vein Answer: C Topic: 23.8 Skill: Factual Recall 33) Which of the following factors contributes to the flow of blood in veins? A) skeletal muscle contractions B) the number of red blood cells in venous blood C) the diameter of capillaries D) blood pressure generated by the heart E) cardiac output Answer: A Topic: 23.8 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 34) Which of the following statements regarding blood pressure is false? A) Normal blood pressure for adult humans is usually at or below 120/80. B) Hypertension is defined as persistent systolic pressure above 120 and/or diastolic above 80. C) High blood pressure can lead to an enlarged and weakened heart, increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure. D) The higher number in a blood pressure reading measures the force of a heart contraction. E) The lower number in a blood pressure reading measures the force during heart relaxation. Answer: B Topic: 23.9 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 8 35) Which of the following can contribute to high blood pressure? A) regular exercise B) eating a heart-healthy diet C) avoiding excess alcohol D) smoking E) maintaining proper weight Answer: D Topic: 23.9 Skill: Factual Recall 36) At any given time, what percentage of the bodyʹs capillaries have blood flowing through them? A) 5 10% B) 20 25% C) 40 50% D) 60 70% E) 85 90% Answer: A Topic: 23.10 Skill: Factual Recall 37) Blood flow through capillaries is controlled by A) one-way valves. B) precapillary sphincters. C) smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles. D) precapillary sphincters and smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles. E) blood pressure. Answer: D Topic: 23.10 Skill: Factual Recall 38) What type of blood vessel is solely responsible for exchange between the blood and the interstitial fluid? A) artery B) arteriole C) capillary D) venule E) vein Answer: C Topic: 23.11 Skill: Factual Recall 39) The diameter of a capillary is about the same as that of A) a nerve. B) a red blood cell. C) an arteriole. D) a valve. 9 E) a venule. Answer: B Topic: 23.11 Skill: Factual Recall 40) One way that substances move between blood and interstitial fluid is by A) alternatively breaking and regenerating membranes of cells lining capillaries. B) osmosis. C) diffusion through clefts between the epithelial cells of the capillary wall. D) active transport utilizing ATP. E) activating pressure differentials. Answer: C Topic: 23.11 Skill: Factual Recall 41) Whether there is a net flow of fluid into or out of a capillary at a given point along its length depends upon A) whether the fluid contains nutrients or wastes. B) whether or not the fluid contains oxygen. C) whether or not the fluid contains carbon dioxide. D) the balance between blood pressure and osmotic pressure. E) the needs of the tissue. Answer: D Topic: 23.11 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 42) The liquid part of blood is called A) water. B) plasma. C) serum. D) extrastitial fluid. E) anionic fluid. Answer: B Topic: 23.12 Skill: Factual Recall 43) Cells make up about what percentage of total blood volume? A) 10% B) 25% C) 45% D) 65% E) 80% Answer: C Topic: 23.12 Skill: Factual Recall 10 44) Blood proteins are involved in all of the following activities except A) fighting infection. B) maintaining osmotic balance. C) acting as buffers. D) maintaining salinity. E) blood clotting. Answer: D Topic: 23.12 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 45) Which of these statements about erythrocytes is true? A) The main function of erythrocytes is to carry nutrients. B) Erythrocytes are shaped like biconcave disks. C) Each erythrocyte contains about 250 million molecules of iron. D) Erythrocytes in adult humans have nuclei. E) Oxygen is transported on the surface of leukocytes. Answer: B Topic: 23.12 Skill: Factual Recall 46) Which of the following cells are phagocytes? A) monocytes and neutrophils B) basophils and eosinophils C) lymphocytes only D) lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils E) basophils, lymphocytes, and neutrophils Answer: A Topic: 23.12 Skill: Factual Recall 47) How long do human red blood cells circulate in the blood before they wear out and have to be replaced? A) 1 to 2 weeks B) 1 month C) 3 to 4 months D) 6 to 8 months E) 10 to 12 months Answer: C Topic: 23.13 Skill: Factual Recall 48) What is the most common cause of anemia? A) vitamin deficiency B) low blood pressure C) iron deficiency D) inefficient hemoglobin production 11 E) bone marrow cancer Answer: C Topic: 23.13 Skill: Factual Recall 49) An adult humanʹs red blood cells are formed in the A) spleen. B) liver. C) bone marrow. D) abdominal cavity. E) thoracic cavity. Answer: C Topic: 23.13 Skill: Factual Recall 50) Which of the following can increase red blood cell concentration in a unit of blood? A) training at low altitudes B) reducing blood levels of EPO C) blood doping D) hydration E) a condition called anemia Answer: C Topic: 23.13 Skill: Factual Recall 51) Blood clots are formed by platelets and the plasma protein A) thrombin. B) sealin. C) hemophilin. D) fibrinogen. E) thrombus. Answer: D Topic: 23.14 Skill: Factual Recall 52) Which of the following statements about blood clotting is true? A) The first response to an injury is dilation of the damaged blood vessels. B) During the clotting response, platelets rapidly congregate in the interstitial fluid. C) Fibrin is enzymatically converted to fibrinogen. D) Threads of fibrin trap blood cells and platelets. E) Chemicals released by platelets prevent cell division in smooth muscle and connective tissues. Answer: D Topic: 23.14 Skill: Factual Recall 12 53) Multipotent stem cells A) phagocytize bacterial cells. B) are primarily important in blood clotting. C) are responsible for an immune response. D) are isolated from adult blood. E) can differentiate into all blood cells and platelets. Answer: E Topic: 23.15 Skill: Factual Recall 54) Stem cell research may eventually result in a cure for blood cell diseases, such as A) monocyte differentiation. B) leukemia. C) anemia. D) metastatic cancer. E) hemophilia. Answer: B Topic: 23.15 Skill: Conceptual Understanding Art Questions 1) Which part of this figure depicts a pulmonary artery? A) part A B) part B 13 C) part C D) part D E) part E Answer: D Topic: 23.3 Skill: Factual Recall 2) Which of the following describes the stage of the cardiac cycle shown? A) AV and SL valves both open, ventricles contracting B) AV valves open, SL valves closed, ventricles contracting C) AV valves closed, SL valves open, ventricles contracting D) AV valves closed, SL valves open, ventricles relaxed E) AV valves closed, SL valves closed, ventricles relaxed Answer: C Topic: 23.4 Skill: Application 3) Which part of this figure depicts an arteriole? A) part A 14 B) part B C) part C D) part D E) part E Answer: B Topic: 23.7 Skill: Factual Recall Scenario Questions After reading the following paragraph, answer the question(s) below. Ron and Tiffany are studying circulatory system function. They designed an experiment to test whether the diameter of a tube would affect the rate of flow through the tube. They ran water from a large container through five tubes with different diameters for exactly 30 seconds for each tube. They measured the volume of liquid that passed through the tube in the 30-second period. They tested each tube three times and poured the water back into the container after each test. The results of the experiment are shown in the following table. 1) Which statement best summarizes the results of the experiment? A) The larger the tube diameter, the greater the flow volume. B) The larger the tube diameter, the smaller the flow volume. C) The tube diameter shows no clear relationship to flow volume. D) The smaller the tube, the greater the flow volume. E) The flow rate through the largest tube is approximately twice that of the smallest. Answer: A Topic: 23.8 Skill: Conceptual Understanding 2) The rate of flow in the smallest diameter tube is comparable to that found in the ________ of the human body. A) arteries B) veins C) capillaries D) arterioles E) venules Answer: C Topic: 23.8 Skill: Application 15 ...
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