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Topic_3.3_ALDEHYDES_KETONES - Derivatives of hydrocarbons...

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Derivatives of hydrocarbons Aldehydes and Ketones Chapter 3.3 Aldehydes and Ketones structure and properties Sources Reactions Important of aldehydes and ketones
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o carbonyl compounds : compounds with carbonyl group o examples of carbonyl compounds : o general formula : C n H 2n O R C H O Introduction C O R C R' O aldehyde ketone
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Carbonyl Group Both aldehydes and ketones contain the carbonyl group which has a double bond between carbon and oxygen. Remember, oxygen forms only two bonds, so in the carbonyl group nothing else bonds to the oxygen. H O R R O R
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Carbonyl Containing Compound Formula Family Formula Family Aldehyde Ketone Carboxylic Acid Ester Amide
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Aldehydes and Ketones Only differ by location of carbonyl Aldehydes Ketones Results in different properties and reactions RCHO RC(=O)R’
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Structure The functional group of an aldehyde aldehyde is a carbonyl group bonded to a hydrogen atom in methanal, the simplest aldehyde, the carbonyl group is bonded to two hydrogens in other aldehydes, it is bonded to one hydrogen and one carbon The functional group of a ketone ketone is a carbonyl group bonded to two carbons CH 3 CH O HCH O CH 3 CCH 3 O Propanone (Acetone) Ethanal (Acetaldehyde) Methanal (Formaldehyde)
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Example
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Table 8.1: IUPAC nomenclature and common names for aldehyde and ketone compounds.
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