1Clecture24 - 20.1 Radioactive decay 20.2 Decay kinetics...

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Unformatted text preview: 20.1 Radioactive decay 20.2 Decay kinetics 20.3 Nuclear transformations 20.4 Detection and uses 20.5Thermodynamic stability 20.6 Fission and fusion 20.? Effects 600 Him W Change Change Change in Prmesn in A in Z Neutronfi‘rnznn Ratio Example fi—pertiele (electron) 0 +1 Decrease 353M "me- zi’fii +4“ wife prmiucticn Pesizmn productiun If} --1 increase lite! -~+ $33 + it? Eleetrnn capture 0 1 increase +- wtfe M EEG:- a-pnnieie production ""4 “2 Increase 333% —a- l‘fi'fil‘h + We 'y-ray production 0 0 — Excited nucleus m—a ground-stare nucleus i- Spontanecus iissinn — £33K} M lighter; nuclides + neutrons .m. N ‘5 a = K n— = t! E "5 1" .5 F 5 2 E “fiHg ( 3.53M ratio] Unstable region 1100 many ncuh'nnx': .xlmrmncuux hclu production} mam [LEN ralim L'nxiuififr Tcgiun [tn-u mun); pmtnnh'. \[hlllL‘lTk‘Uilh 11u~itrnn pmdLlL‘tiun'] '{Li [§:| ratio] 40 {>0 Numiacr of pmtonsa {Z} Number of Number of Number 0f Protons Neurmns Stable Nuclides Examples Even Even 163 13C, '30 Even Odd 57 'QC‘ EST Odd Even so '31:, fiNa Odd Odd 4 2.1%, “Li Note: Even numbers m‘ protuns and ncumma seem m fawn- stability. Mass number (A) IIIIIIIIIIIII m IIIIIIIIIIIII m Illlllllflimll m IIIIIIIIIIEII m IIIIIIIIIIIII m IIIIIIIIIIIII Illllllfllllll m IIIIIIIIIIIII m IIIIIEHIIIIIII m IIIIIIIIIIIII IIIEIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIII lllllllllllll IIHIIIIIIIIII Ifilllllllllll m IIHIIIIIIIIII m IflIIIIIIIIIII m IIIIIIIIIIIII 0 828384853687883990919293 Atomic number (Z) Nuclidc Uranium-238 (133111 Thorium-234 {13,3111} Pro-lactiniunf—Zfl {limit} Uranium-234 (‘SEUJ Thorium-230 {1393111} Radium-226L[2§§Ra} Radon-222 fzfiéRn} Polonium-ZIS Papa) Lead-214 1:3er Bismuth—21: Egan Polonium-214 {13:90] Lead-210 (1,3pr Bismuth-21!? {1333i} Polonium-Zilfl [2351b] Lead-206 (1%:pr Particle Produced Q E "E: Q Half-Life 4.51 X 109 years 24.] days 6.?5 hours 2.48 X 105 years 3.0 x 10“ years 1.62 X 1!!!3 years 3.82 days 3.] minutes 26.8 minutu 19.7 minutes 1.6 x 10“ second 20.4- years 5.0 days 133.4 days Stable DTm-WIIEM In: wimwmwm Number of half-lives 1 4 6 THE ".0- {D 99"’Tc half-fife = E E1 ID 5%“ 5m 31% ‘fim E5. '5 - 25.30 2haEf-iive3 5.3% 1375 . .n 2 1250 half-hues in 625 Z 006§21E243036¢2435460 Ema {h} CUM/fl ~Ewwfio€ in1 k 10.0 «SI-(g! Ch 5 . up“ 'i Mass of h I: 3 hair1 lives 4 half- iives 2” 4G (10 30 I00 I“; = Tm = I”; 3 I”; = I20 Time Err} Rail. =— “IJMJ JEHM] = ")d +1HML’ W :JU/n. éQ“[ twain/1 (Pnam va0 cc WtSSLM Mm, 1%: EJWW. Wm l m , 2 m, an; ,w Wmm W5 WWW “WI $00!?ng 4%sz 400% x 1:— :— 2003 [Mo K .._; [Mt W x 3—- x 1“ ~ E00 L % 02 at» ? Dig-EH (313$ch 4Df’5mikixii5% {MC 2 W m In(:é>—ww>m Mnemme fl 5% L61 mm (U nslahlc nucleus} m if, Large proportion proportion of escapes of escapes Q “3" Q .or" “EH Small M \3.‘ A)" / "9' ‘3‘ Nucleus m 0 "2’" “Egg” Two neutrons \‘a“ from fission fl, Nucleus M Q Ham Subcritical mass a {lion man}.r neutrons; fl, “‘6‘” m" escape to keep the Supercrilical mass ‘fl‘ reaction sustained} {most released noutronfi fir, interact with nuclidcs \G“ A}, man“ and the chain Q reaction multiplies} m ’5' Chutes! irom eerlleel Polrmien cult“ In line" Um wmpinge from £00k ol Isaiah. Dead See Semis p 8 Charcoal from eminent settlerrieni In Japan Bumaerraerram empllonlhet creme cm Lelia, Oregon Burned bloom bones associated wflh Folsom Man, found at Lubbock, Tone Meeolltlrle-Neolllille Irenellion lle. Belt Cairo. Iran E Bumeri bonus 0»! elolh 3.50 In Chilean cave. Eeflleet lrece at human yreeence a! tip at 50th America é“ Channel {one Lassen: Carlee. Frame. site or efleneirre cave pelntlngs [see background} Natural logarithm o! opooli'le: ocuvlty 0.50 1199 {rental Nuclide Half-Life Area of the Body Studied 131l 8.1 days Thyroid 51$Fe 45.1 days Red blood cells wMo 6? hours Metabolism 3’2? 143 days Eyes, liver, tumors “Cr 27.3 days Red Blood cells Pi75r 2.8 hours Bones 99Ti: 6.0 hours Heart, bones, liver, lungs l'l'll‘fie 5.3 days Lungs 14No 14.8 hours Circulatory system Expose re Source imiilirernslyear] Radon EDD Cosmic rediarion 2? From the earth 513 From building 3 materials in human tissues 39 inhalation of air _5 Total from 302 natural sources X-ray diagnosis 50 Radiotherapy l0 internal diagnosis! 1 therapy Nuclear power 0.2 industry TV robes, industrial 2 wastes, ere. Radioactive fallout M4“ Torm' from limo-err 6? oriiriio'cs Total 369 Dose {rem} Clinical Effect 0-25 Nondeteerahle 25-50 Temporary decrease in white blood cell counts 100-200 Strong decrease in white blood cell counts 500 Death of half the exposed population within 30 days after exposure Change in We :0" abecav uGHel 5‘ © 4 .2 .2 _ .4, ReaEtant Pro‘duct 0: (parent) (deughter)expelted fiDecay -“fl ;n -—-l-:p. + $59 0 +1 -1 In nucleus in nucleus fiexpetled Positron 0‘} 1pc “sin + 059 0 -1 +1 1 1 a ‘1 emissm“ In nucleus in nucleus positron o 1 : expetled Electron x-ray 4° 19° --+ ol‘t O «1 +1 capture photon engaged in nucleus In nucleus low-energy n orbital 2’" r9 ’ «(Emission a? + 3? O 0 0 as; excited stable yphoton nucleus nucleus radiated *Neutrinos (v) are involved in several of these processes but are not shown. ...
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1Clecture24 - 20.1 Radioactive decay 20.2 Decay kinetics...

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