anthro101lec19.0305.y08 - ANTHROPOLOGY 101 LECTURE 19-20:...

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ANTHROPOLOGY 101 03.05-07.08 LECTURE 19-20: Making a Living [Note: We'll spend part of Friday, March 7 with a powerpoint presentation from Fricke’s work in North Dakota; the main intent of this presentation will be to illustrate material in the essay “Next Year Country” assigned for reading. Big take-away points: -- to talk about livelihood is to simultaneously talk about all elements of culture and social life -- you can’t talk about the uses of technology & making a living without invoking meanings and morally coded sentiments -- work and family are never separate -- they have implications for each other even in those settings where they appear not to; for agricultural farms organized around family production, this is especially obvious Study hint on this: use these two major points to review the essay itself -- look for examples in the reading. And finally, these notes will elaborate on some of the material in the March 5 lecture -- I may not cover all the terms -- like adaptation, horticulture, cultivation, etc. -- but they appear here and in the Kottak book so I do want you to be familiar with them. Be sure to read the notes!] I. Notes on the Adaptive Perspective A. Entry into the human condition from any aspect of humanity; adaptation is one: Adaptation the relationship of human populations to their environment and the means by which these populations maintain that relationship: focusing on, but not limited to, social organization and production systems. B. This definition betrays some of the intellectual lineage and suggests some of the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. 1. The lineage in some way follows the notion that we need to start with biology and keep adding on layers--there’s a kind of subtle unlineal and progressive evolution implied 2. So you start with the animal Homo sapiens and keep moving away from biology until you arrive at something that is somehow more “cultural” --> the organism --> the organism’s means of biological survival (getting food) --> the organism’s means of getting along with other organisms of the same kind (society) --> the organism’s system of meaning 3. In a way we see this same pattern played out in the discussions of human evolution; taken the wrong way, an adaptive perspective seems to imply that the history of developments in the paleoanthropological record should be the model of 1
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ANTHROPOLOGY 101 03.05-07.08 LECTURE 19-20: Making a Living contemporary approaches to human diversity C. And so the adaptive perspective seems to give a lot of attention to production systems (which get thought of in terms of broad categories): 1. foraging : (the new word for hunting & gathering--anthropologists, like primatologists have been sexist in their terms in the past--one of the reasons for the change here is the realization that most hunting & gathering groups get most of their livelihood from the gathering part--from the woman mostly) 2. cultivation : a) horticulture (slash & burn; non-plough)
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2008 for the course ANTHRO 101 taught by Professor Peters during the Winter '08 term at University of Michigan.

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anthro101lec19.0305.y08 - ANTHROPOLOGY 101 LECTURE 19-20:...

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