anthro101lec09.jan28.y08 - ANTHROPOLOGY 101 LECTURE 09 Race...

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ANTHROPOLOGY 101 01.28.08 LECTURE 09 Race & Intelligence I. Here’s something that won’t go away: race & intelligence A. W.E.B. Dubois, African American sociologist, historian, and activist--writing in Crisis , the magazine of the NAACP in 1911: “The leading scientists of the world have come forward...and laid down in categorical terms a series of propositions which may be summarized as follows: 1. It is not legitimate to argue from differences in physical characteristic to differences in mental characteristics... 2. The civilization of a...race at any particular moment of time offers no index to its innate or inherited capacities...” B. But they do it all the time: 1. Samuel George Morton, 1820s-1850 “proves” that Caucasian is the most intelligent race based on skull size & capacity 2. Mr. Robert Bean, a Virginia physician, in 1906 “proves” that American blacks are less intelligent than American whites based on brain size; argues that A leaders in all political parties acknowledge the error human equality” and take steps to keep inferior groups from voting 3. In France, (1860s) Paul Broca “demonstrates” with brain size that women, blacks, and poor people less intelligent than white males 4. In 1916, Lewis Terman uses IQ scores to show that intelligence is largely inherited & therefore blacks (and immigrant groups) inferior with respect to intelligence 5. Most recent in the series and appearing almost exactly at the same time as the Gingrich revolution in Congress is the book, The Bell Curve: The Reshaping of American Life by Difference in Intelligence , by Richard Herrnstein & Charles Murray (1994, Free Press). C. Herrnstein & Murray arguments in the long tradition of Social Darwinism Social Darwinism : a theory that argues that the poor are in their situation for inherent and immutable reasons related to biology (and that the rich are in theirs); and that to tamper with this natural sorting is to risk genetic ruin --> one notable statistic is their reporting of a 15 point gap in the average IQs of African-Americans vs. Euro-Americans 1
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ANTHROPOLOGY 101 01.28.08 LECTURE 09 Race & Intelligence II. Here’s what we know: A. Race is not a viable scientific way to categorize people: independent assortment in
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