Chapter 1 Outline

Chapter 1 Outline - Adam Ward Chapter 1 Outline Page | 1...

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Adam Ward Chapter 1 Outline Page | 1 Perception and Communication I. Selective Perception and the Individual i. we see what we need to see is not merely a psychologist’s whim ii. necessary to base our understanding of how we perceive our experience on the assumption that we distort iii. have tendency to reinforce our own subjective interpretation A. Individual Insecurity i. when individuals join a group, they change; they are no longer the same people ii. anxiety is the most powerful factor altering peoples individuality iii. role shift from individual to group member creates conflicts B. Life Positions i. past distortions are infused into the present and compounded C. Perception and Development i. our perception of the world continually changes throughout our lifespan ii. our behavior in groups is affected by our development II. Selective Perception and Culture i. culture and particular environment in which we develop also affect our perception of reality ii. the cultural context in which the group experience takes place also has profound effects iii. cultural factors profoundly affect how we think about groups and behave in them A. Unconscious Factors i. the unconscious is a force at work tainting our perceptions and altering our behaviors ii. unconscious reactions are influenced by environmental cues B. The Halo Effect i. most people believe their judgments are based on facts and information III. Selective Perception and Group Behavior i. groups as well as individuals are affected by unconscious factors and inaccurate assumptions A. The Influence of Stereotypes i. stereotypes are preconceived notions of how individuals from certain groups think, feel, and act ii. in a group, individual stereotypes feed on themselves iii. as group members, we rapidly turn for support to those we believe share our own views iv. groups of people form stereotypes about the “in-ness” and “out-ness” of other groups of people v. people also form stereotypes in subgroups within a primary group
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Adam Ward Chapter 1 Outline Page | 2 vi. attribution error is a tendency to assume a correspondence between a group decision and members’ preferences B. Gestalt Theory i. we select and organize physical stimuli in the manner that is easiest and most convenient for us ii. we organize the complexities of human behavior in similar ways iii. helps us understand how experience organizes itself irrespective of the perceiver iv. people have a tendency to take various stimuli and focus on one set of stimuli that appears to be “good” in terms of similarity, continuity, closure, and symmetry IV. Selective Perception and Communication i. our propensity to organize a group in the manner that is most comforting to us can prove to be a distinct liability to effective communication A. The Nature of Communication i. verbal language is only one aspect of the ongoing communication that occurs in all human behavior ii. every action, even silence, is a communication iii. think of communication as having three aspects: the nonverbal aspect, the emotion aspect,
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Chapter 1 Outline - Adam Ward Chapter 1 Outline Page | 1...

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