Sociology Notes 3 - Religion Unified system of beliefs and...

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Religion Unified system of beliefs and practices o To separate the Sacred from the Profane o Sacred: Elements beyond ordinary everyday life o Profane: Everyday life that is ordinary and common The world’s largest religions: o Christianity: 2.2 Billion o Islam: 1.4 Billion o Hinduism: 876 Million o Buddhism: 386 Million o Judaism: 11 Million Functions Integrates or meshes different groups and cultures Provides social support Allows individual expression through belief and ritual Symbol of Change o The Protestant Work Ethic o Protestant work ethic is a drive to accumulate savings that could be used for later endeavors, a disciplined work ethic and a rational orientation to life and being prepared associated with protestant descendants of John Calvin o Liberation Theology: o The use of the church in troubled areas in a political effort to eliminate poverty, discrimination, and other, forms of injustice from a secular society Resistant to social change Maintains existing social structure Religious Organization Ecclesia: o A religious organization that claims to include most or all members of a society and is recognized as the national or official religion.
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Something you are born into without much choice such as a government sponsored religion Example: Islam in the Middle East, the Lutheran Church in Sweden Denomination: o Large, organized religion that is not officially linked to the state or government. Example: Presbyterianism in the U.S. Sect: o Relatively small religious group that has broken away from some other religious organization Example: Seventh Day Adventists, Jehovah’s Witness, and Amish New Religious Movement or Cults: o Small, secretive religious group that represent either a new religion or a major innovation of an existing faith. o Forms a quasi-religion o Example: Scientology Religion in School Creationism, Evolution, Intelligent Design, and School Prayer o Creationism: The biblical account of the creation of humans and the rest of the universe 10,000 years ago in seven days o Evolution: The theory that humans and all other organisms evolved over billions of years from basic single-celled organisms after the beginning of the known universe 15 billion years ago. o Intelligent Design: The idea that life and existence in general is so complex that it could have only been created by some intelligent being.
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